Rast Musicology Journal 2019-08-26T19:06:24+00:00 Fikri Soysal Open Journal Systems <p>RAST&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary, refereed journal devoted to issues and practices in the music research.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> The Musical Relationship Between England and the Ottoman Empire 2019-08-26T10:21:56+00:00 Hikmet Toker <p>This article based on the research project that I conducted at Kings’ College London between&nbsp; 2015-2016. It is titled, The Musical Relationship Between &nbsp;England and the Ottoman Empire. The data that I obtained from the Ottoman and National archives was presented after the analysing process.</p> <p>In this article, the role of music in the relationship between the states and societies is analysed from the time of first diplomatic relationship to the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Additionally, we examined the phenomenon of the use of music as a diplomatic and politic instrument between these countries by specific examples.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>music and politics, ottoman music, musical westernisation, music and diplomacy </em></p> 2019-08-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ney and insan-ı kamil symbolism in the mawlawi thinking 2019-08-26T10:21:56+00:00 Yalçın Çetinkaya <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>In the first eighteen couplets of the Masnavi, the Ney holds the pride of place. It complains; depicting the separations. It says “Ever since I was torn from the reed bed, I have been crying out; men and women, everyone listens to my crying sound, they shed tears and groaning. One that falls apart from its source, of course seeks the time of reunion, I cried and groaned in every society; I have become acquainted with everyone; Everyone has become friends with me in their own way , yet no one sought the secrets inside me ”. Mawlana says Ney has been stricken by the fire of love and it is love that warms up the wine of truth. “ Only the Ney can become both poison and antidote; only the Ney can turn into a lifetime companion; it has been depicting a bloodstained road, telling the stories of Majnun”. And in the end, he finishes the eighteen couplets saying that it is necessary to cut the poem short because an immature person would not be able to understand the words of a sophisticated, mature person.</p> <p>According to the ancient commentators, the Ney referred to in these eighteen couplets is “İnsân-ı Kâmil”. It was torn from the reed bed of unity . It abandoned its own existence and came into existence as a real being. Its voice proclaims the will of God; its will is the will of God. However, in appearance, its confined with attributes and actions; It yearns for the world of Letting-Go. More precisely, the Ney’s yearning is a manifestation, a show of feign reluctance to itself.</p> <p>In the first part of this essay, an introduction has been made by summarizing Mawlana’ views on the universe. According to Mawlana, above all beings, the human is the only being that has been honoured with all the names of God. He refers to God. Since God Almighty has created the human as self-learned, knowing and informed, the human from time to time sees in his own being’s astrolabe the reflection and unique beauty of God. Everything lies within the human. He is the mirror of God’s beauty. For that reason, every human should look into himself to find whatever he is seeking. The human is great and everything is written within him. Yet the darkness and veils do not allow him to read what is written inside him. The human is endowed with such a huge love, ambition, desire and sorrow that he cannot find peace even though he might have owned thousands of worlds. According to Mawlana, every human is a huge world.</p> <p>In Sufism, the human is the purpose and the end of existence. He passed from the Infinite Existence to the world of existence , and from there he passed on to the world of nature and the material. In the world of material, the Human spread out to the non-living, plants and animals from the four main elements being fire, air, water and earth as believed in the past. Human spread his own existence all over the universe. From the mines, plants and animals, which they took, ate and drank in nature, man’s mother and father gathered such existence of the human that would come into being, and eventually the intercourse of man and woman gave rise to the emergence of that being who took the human form. In this respect, the human that has been extracted from the universe and is the soul of the universe, and the universe itself is almost a mould for the human. However, among the humans there is only one who has definitely reached the reality; and he is the soul of all humans; others resemble a template compared to him.</p> <p>According to Mawlana, creation is continuous and the earth is a world of wars. Particles fight with particles and science progresses towards the best, the newest and the truth at all times. When a human takes in his hand a stick with one end burning and waves it quickly from one side to another, the eye sees nothing but a line of fire and thinks that the line does not move. However, it is constantly changing its place. Just like this example, the universe is in a constant state of change from the new to the new, but we see it as stable and unchanging and therefore, the old ones are worn down and go, and the new ones emerge. The universe is always busy being human, and the human is busy mixing with the universe.</p> <p>In the second part of the essay, Mawlana’s Ney and “İnsân-ı Kâmil” Symbolisms are explained. According to “İnsân-ı Kâmil”, the Ney is like “İnsân-ı Kâmil”and he explains this in the first eighteen couplets. In these eighteen couplets , there is the Ney in pride of place. It complains; depicting the separations. ”Ever since I was torn from the reed bed, I have been crying out; men and women, everyone listens to my crying sound and they shed tears and groan. One that falls far from its source, of course seeks the day of union. I cried and groaned in every society; I became acquainted with everyone; everyone became friends with me in their own way, but no one searched my secrets”. Mawlana says the Ney was stricken by the fire of love and it is that love that warms up the wine of verity. “ Nothing like the Ney can become both a poison and antidote; nothing can turn into such a lifetime companion like the Ney; it has been representing a bloodstained road, telling the stories of Majnun”. And in the end, he finishes the eighteen couplets saying that it is necessary to cut the poem short because an immature person would not be able to understand the words of a sophisticated, mature person.</p> <p>According to ancient commentators , the Ney referred to therein is “İnsân-ı Kâmil”. It was torn from the reed bed of unity . It abandoned its own existence and came into existence as a real being. Its voice proclaims the will of God; its will is the will of God.</p> <p>Saying that the fire that fell on to the Ney is the fire of love and the fervour of the wine is the fervour of love, Mawlana explains that love exists all around the universe and the existence evolves towards perfection within its own capability. The Absolute Existence’s tendency for the appearance is referred to as love and love for self by its nature ; in this respect. it can be said that the entire universe manifested itself out of love; and it continues such manifestation with every breath. The voice of the Perfect Human does not leave its secret; as explained by Hazrat Ali “ Man is understood from his language and known by his word”. His voice and word are such a fire that it burns the one who hears them and erases the relative existence. It is for that reason when he says “ He who does not have this fire shall be annihilated” , it does not mean a curse, but a benediction; it means “ Let him fall in that fire too, let his assumed existence burn, vanish”. The wine is beyond doubt a symbol. It points out an ecstasy that smothers with real love, wisdom and unearthly joy and which takes one from his own existence and self. From the word and view of the perfect human, the Ney’s being both a poison and antidote refers to the talented one’s getting rid of his bad habits and reviving his spiritual habits that have been poisoned by such bad habits.</p> <p>In the third part of the essay, it is explained that the Ney is a mirror that reflects the human soul and it is explained why it is compared to “İnsân-ı Kâmil” and the love of fire striking the Ney. From the Ney emerges affectionate voices, from the perfect person emerges affectionate and wise words . The sound of the Ney boosts the listeners’ love just like a wise man enhances the love of the talented with his words of wisdom. As with the emotions of a story, a love affair emanating from the beautiful sound of Ney, the state of the genuine lovers, the secrets of the world of the unknown are often heard and felt in the words of the wise.</p> <p>Such features attributed to the Ney are more or less similar features. The Ney represents “İnsân-ı Kâmil”. It is the symbol of a perfect human being who has been freed from the desires of the flesh, cleansed itself and became filled with a divine love. The Ney has been lamenting since it left the reed. The human has also been exiled to earth from his world of pre-eternity, the world of the spirits. He suffers because he has been parted from God. The human shall long for the happiness of the world of spirits as he struggles with the pains, illnesses and troubles experienced while living on earth, and he will seek ways to escape from the earth where he is a stranger and lives as if in exile. <br>The first eighteen couplets of the Masnawi also tells about the love of the Ney, in other words “İnsân-ı Kâmil” by using the Ney and “İnsân-ı Kâmil” that is symbolized by the Ney as examples. “İnsân-ı Kâmil” has given up all the worldly pleasures and preferred love and dearth. “Love” says Mawlana “is dearth, it is being in need of some thing. So, being in need is the essence.” İnsân-ı Kâmil is the one who is in need”. The sound of the Ney is fire, not wind. He who does not have this fire, should not exist. It is the fire of love stricken the Ney; it is the fervour of the love stricken the wine.”</p> <p>By saying the fire that strikes the Ney is the fire of love and that fervour is the fervour of love, Mawlana notes that love is all around the entire universe and explains that almost every being is evolving to perfectionism as allowed by their abilities. The sound of the perfect human symbolised by the Ney, is the symbol of the saints, and is as divine as an oracle, as an inspiration. That is why it is warm, it burns like a flame, like fire. The only remedy for those who do not feel this fire, do not touch and burn with this fire is non-existence. Such non-existence manifests itself as a release from the attachments of material beings and it is the handover of the soul into the hands of love, in short the ridding oneself of the eagerness and ambitions of self. Only then can the human understand how and why the sound of the Ney is burning. The sound of the Ney is the words and voices of the saints.</p> <p>Some of the ancient scholars and Sufis believe that love is an epidemic among the living. There is no being alive that does not seek the perfection and integrity of its own existence. That which activates the substance in the world of being is the love that is fed with such perfection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>mawlana, masnavi, ney, love, insan-ı kamil</em></p> 2019-08-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Intonation and text specifications of Siyavush Karimi’s song “pain being without you” 2019-08-26T10:21:57+00:00 Aynura Vagif Mammadova <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>One of the Famous musicians of the Republic of Azerbaijan, professor Siyavush Karimi started professional music activity in the 1970s. The evolution and development processes of his art and creativity have always acted on the rising line.</p> <p>When we examine his creative biography in the article, we can define several aspects of his professional activity: performing, composing, scientific and educational activities, rectorate and enlightenment, music-social activity and etc. Especially, his musical creativity is researched in this article.</p> <p>The musicals of Siyavush Karimi occupy a special place in modern Azerbaijani musical culture. We should also note that every single music he had made available to his listeners from the first day he performed. First of all, it enables music to be more dependent on national sources. At the same time, the composer’s original composition of each song has an important role. Another reason for their being loved by the audience is that they are lyrical character.</p> <p>The songs of Siyavush Karimi consist of the free and essential area of his creativity. In particular, lyrical songs are the main indicator of the composer’s musical world. In lyric songs, the composer was able to instill his all the inner-spiritual world, thoughts, elegant, subtle emotions, as well as dramatic-expressive tension. Along with the lyrical music that plays a significant role in the composer’s musical creativity, it is important to keep place the genre of lyric-patriotic music, which is also particularly important in the variety music of Azerbaijan. <br>The melody of the S. Kerimi’s songs attracts attention with its fluency. In the melodic structure of the songs, the unity of words and music were harmonized by the composer, who attached great importance to its meaning. Therefore, every word used in his songs is even more effective with expressive tones. In any case, the main reason for this is that the melody of the song creates the advantage of the start of the sparkling speech.</p> <p>Nevertheless, national color in songs, their commitment to folk musical sources keep their style of playback and fluent preform. In the Composer’s song creativity, the cohesion to the national sources gave wide opportunities to the genre. Specifically, aforementioned above, it provided dynamism, uniformity of the form, expression of language (ton), rhythm richness. Specifically, as mentioned above, it was providing the dynamism, openness of form, expression of language (ton) language, rhythm richness. The synthesis of all these types of musical genres (jazz, rock) has brought an interesting tone of confusion. However, despite all this, the main task facing the composer is to preserve national originality and richness.</p> <p>Thus, from the end of the 20th century, with the music of S.Karimi, can be assumed that, as a new breath of modern Azerbaijan variety music was selected by its own style. It becomes possible thanks to the strong collaboration and unity of famous, talented composers and singers. His songs of high art value, decorating the repertoire of many artists - Firangiz Rahmmbayova, currently working in the United States and gained popularity in the 80s in the field of Azerbaijan variety, people’s artist Azar Zeynalov, Nazpari Dostaliyeva, Ilgar Muradov and other singers contributed to the development of modern music of Azerbaijan and made their own songs.</p> <p>The melodic structure of the Azerbaijani folk music creativity, the development principle, the organization of the form is observed in many songs. The connection of his music with folk creativity is more apparent in the melodic style. The connection of composer melodies to folk music, national music identifies the deep and important feature of the songs.</p> <p>The melodic source of music that collects the highest features of the music genre is the tone, structure and musical features of folk music. The melodic source of music that collects the highest features of the music genre in the modern variety defines the tone, structure and musical features of folk music. It gives uncertainty, originality to the music of Siyavush Karimi by filtering through the composer’s own creative the characteristic features of original folk music creations and synthesizing with modern varieties of music and combining with modern poetic text.</p> <p>Singing a certain piece of the popular songs, the passage principle around it shows itself in the melody of most of the music of Karim. As determined, the main purpose of such passages in folk songs depends on the executive functions of the transport of style beating sound. The songs of S. Karimi are selected by melodic expression power. Here, the commitment of national resources according to the tempo shows itself more clearly. The music of Siyavush Karimi has the great impact power due to obvious genre and his internal energy. The melody of music has a wide range. Octave songs and the wider range of songs from it prevail.</p> <p>The composer uses the basic principles, based on the traditions of folk music, in the organization of his musical form. Repetition, diversity, and sequence development principles are the cause of the genre requirement. From a structured perspective, most of the music of Siyavush Karimi is in the form of a clause-transplant. The composer’s lyrical musics, we can note, are mild, heavy temp, which is a characteristic of their characteristic, imaginary world. The connection of the composer’s lyric music with the folk lyric music genre clearly shows in their tone structure: in the order of the melodic line, in the movement of melodic turns down from the top, singing the beating voices and in reference to them, in the application of the principle of successive development and in the use of characteristic cadence returns from the tone content, and so on. From this point of view, we can conclude that, in the songs of Siyavush Karimi are reflected their high mastery characteristics which in their brains using skillfully the music and artistic vocabulary. As you listen to them, you believe that the author has his own style of writing, the ability to arrange arrangements that are not unique, and the music that is close to the heart.</p> <p>The high artistic features of melodic expression of music, deep lyrical color, rhythmic tone sand etc. are a valuable example of influencing the development of modern Azerbaijani music.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>composer, song, music, analysis, poetry</em></p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ramiz Mustafayevs style features in choir arrangements with accompaniment 2019-08-26T10:21:57+00:00 Aynur Humbatova <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>Folk songs, representing the rich genre of folk music, are a unique examples of art. They reflect a great history, the daily life, lifestyle, customs and traditions of the people, philosophical-psychological, social, domestic, religious and secular perceptions, joy and sorrow, heroic chronicles. Folk songs are as old as the history of the people. U. Hajibeyli emphasized the importance of collecting folk songs and of composing them to eternalize and of working with them in scientific researches. He has repeatedly used this genre in his works.</p> <p>The popularity of folk songs in composers’ work has led to the creation of new methods of use. It manifests their creativity. In the work of R. Mustafayev there are several styles of performance of folk song for choir. Among them, the accompaniment choir is of great importance. Eight pieces of choreography are written in piano accompaniment. Among them are “Yaylıq” (accompaniment, 4 part chorus), “Ey, gözel” (accompaniment, 4 voice choral, soloist), “Sevgilim” (accompaniment, 4 part choir, soloist), “Ay gözel” (accompaniment, 4 voice choir) ), “Qara Gile” (accompaniment, 4 choir chorus), “Qara Teller” (accompaniment, 4 voice choral, soloist), “Aman Ovçu” (accompaniment, 4 voice choral, soloist), “Leylam” (accompaniment, 3 voice chorus), “Sevgilim” (accompanied by 4 voice choir) are choral works composed on the basis of folk songs. Apparently, these jobs are grouped according to certain criteria. Their accompaniment and choir, accompaniment choir and soloist are remarkable. Only one of these exercises is designed for 3 voice choirs, each with a 4-voice chorus party.</p> <p>The soloist party has also been involved in four chorus work, and chorus functioning is based on solo, chorus and piano partrs based on the the folk song “Qara Teller”. The piece starts from instrumental five cycles introduction. Its theme does not imply any fraud of the main melody, but is characteristic of the passage and arpeggio, which demonstrates the technical capabilities of the instrument. Arpeggio chords form the based on the instrumental accompany. The chorus party is homophone-harmonic and it acts as a support for the piano party. The composer was able to accompany an ensemble through the tempo of human voices.</p> <p>The chorus of the “Ay gözel” begins with the introduction of the eight-instrumental entry, which is based on the motives of the song, the first two digits are then expanded in the upper register, down through the sequences, with the passage up to the last two digits ending with the cadence motif. This melody is then played in the second sentence of the choir party, Soprano.<br>During the performance of the second and the sentence, the main melody of the piano accompanied the song, while the third sentence is played by the entrance. It also brings a fullness and ensemble of work. In the work of R. Mustafayev’s accompaniment chorus, the piano party has a position of special importance in shaping the bright and image-emotional world. From this point of view, the “Ay gözel” can serve as a good example.<br> <br>“Qara Gile” “was recorded in 1981. One of the interesting aspects of this work, which has a large volume of instrumental access, is the formation of the chorus partition. Thus, the composer has given harmonic background elements from the beginning to the end in the party of other voices accompanying the main melody. This creates a mood of solo and ensemble accompaniment. The next example we draw on is based on the song “Sevgilim”. This work, written in 1999, is very popular in the khananda (solist) repertoire. The “Sevgilim” chorus is one of the most extensive instrumental examples. The introduction is based on the leitmotiv of the song with a 12-digit (cycles) volume. Another noteworthy aspect of the operation is the use of the principle of distribution of notes we have encountered in the previous examples. Thus, the first two lines of the main melody are played in the case of Unison in the Tenor and Bass party. In the continuation, the whole chorus is played. But here the melodic line of voices differs.</p> <p>Tenor and soprano sounds are given in the octave unison, with the lower Soprano parallel to the melody in the quartz unit. Although the press party is independent, its rhythmic shape is similar to the main ringtones. “Leylam” attracts attention with the interesting part of the chorus of folk song. At the entrance to the 10-piano piano, the composer presents original music tracks using the motives of the song. His character sounds with the general mood of the song. In particular, repeating the 16ths on the “d” sound in the last two digits slightly strengthens the hilarious character. There is an interesting structure in the chorus. The melody was traditionally assigned to Soprano’s voice.</p> <p>As a result, the composer’s interest in the folk song can be easily seen in his works. In the accompaniment of R. Mustafayev’s chorus, first of all the vocal voice capabilities match the basic style of folk song performances. The composer, who is well aware of the details of choral music, not only unveils the singers’ vocal talents, but also pays special attention to the song’s emotional content. It is necessary to mention the role of the piano in the chorus’ performance. The composer used this instrument not only as a companion, but also with skillfulness. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>composer, choir, instrumental accompaniment, work, folk song, style</em></p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance features of Shovkat Alakbarova in the Fuzuli’s cantata of Dj.Djahangirov 2019-08-26T10:21:57+00:00 Kamalya Guliyeva <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>Outstanding Artist of Azerbaijan, singer Shovkat Alakbarova is one of the splendid figures who has a special place in Azerbaijan music culture particularly in the second part of the XX century. The investigation of Shovkat Alakbarova’s rich creativity in her art life is very important. Sh. Alakbarova’s creativity consists several aspects; her role in the development of Azerbaijani vocal singing as a singer, her concerts and pedagogue activities, her specific style in the performance of mugam, folk music, composing songs are the aspects that characterize the singer. In this article Sh.Alakbarova’s performance style is analyzed in the development context of folk and variety art music culture. Particularly, the basic of the features of Fuzuli’s cantata of Dj.Djahangırov is analyzed.<br> <br>Additionally, Sh.Alakbarova’s repertoire was researched, the main directions of her performance style were determined and the important role of her multicolored creativity in the development of Azerbaijan music culture was taken up in this study.</p> <p>In this article, the performance features of Shovkat Alakbarova in the Fuzuli’s cantata of Dj.Djangirov is analyzed and an in-depth analyses of Fuzuli’s cantata is addressed.<br> <br>The cantata consists of three parts and Sh.Alakbarova has singed the second part. Some principles of development and richness of musical language have been also analyzed in the Fuzuli’s cantata.</p> <p>In the article, the study of Sh.Alakbarova’s creativity in the development context of Azerbaijan music culture and main directions of singer’s creativity were assessed in several ways. Thus, in the article the unity of folk and variety style in Sh.Alakbarova’s creativity, the study problems of performance features of folk songs, mugams, rugby-mugams, composer songs and different vocal works were especially illuminated.<br> <br>Sh.Alakbarova created new direction in Azerbaijan music culture with her unusual style and entered music culture history as a master having wide creativity. Her creativity is closely connected with the traditions of Azerbaijan singing art.</p> <p>One of the main contributions of Sh.Alakbarova is about folk music. She gave new life to folk songs with her unique performance. While performing lyric folk songs, she has been loyal to Azerbaijan’s traditional style, as she had sung mugam previously. Singer’s performing folk songs, giving new birth to ancient folk songs, bringing them to variety artful interpretations created a new style in this area. The main aspects of folk songs performance consist of simple and sincere style, maximum closeness to people’s language and unity of features of folk music and variety art style.</p> <p>It must be noted that, Sh.Alakbarova maintained her unique singing style in her performances. Singer was accompanied by folk instrumental ensemble. Though Alakbarova was a singer representing Eastern singing traditions, some with the accompany of symphonic orchestra were preserved. Obviously, singer’s style must be taken into consideration to conclude this study. Consequently, her modernization efforts of traditional folk songs are noticeable.</p> <p>Sh.Alakbarova’s repertoire was compiled with taste, and well-thought. Her repertoire consists of folk songs, mugams, variety art songs, classical romances.</p> <p>Sh.Alakbarova’s repertoire contains various genres such as composers’ lyric, march, waltz, funny song genres, labor songs, ceremony songs, romances. Sh.Alakbarova was the first and a splendid singer of which most songs created at the second part of the XX century.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>singer, song, music, style, performance, shovkat alakbarova</em></p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ismayil Hajibayov’s divertisment 2019-08-26T10:21:57+00:00 Muhammed Vagif Valiyev <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>Ismayil Hajibayov’s “Divertisment” (pages from Vatto album) is of special importance in artistic creativity of the composer, and Azerbaijani music in many decades.</p> <p>In his work, Ismayil Hajibayov achieved synthesis of theatre and music. It should be noted that such small sketches which have already been known since 16th -17th centuries and theatre-music integrity increase its importance. Another important aspect of this piece that, was created by synthesizing afore mentioned phenomenons and all art types as of 20th – 21st centuries. For example, it is very interesting to see that the composer’s scenario as well as the performer’s staging in the work expresses their artistic perceptions in instrumental theatre genre. In general, instrumental tools turn into the personage in this work.</p> <p>The composer who adopted instrumental theatre genre as synthetic genre includes synthesis of art branches into Azerbaijani music. Together with music, dramatizing of performance proses, improvisations of the performer (trombone) in the scene, i.e. In this respect, this performance style, is thought as an instrumental theatre. It is also called “action-music”. <br> <br>The composer could perfectly express the synthetic character of instrumental theatre genre in this work. This genre was suitable for the author, because, instrumental theatre allows to extend the sense sphere of the work. This genre is also suitable for performers, because, it allowed them to express their artistic skills (both conductor and performers).<br> <br>“Pages from Vatto album” was created by Ismayol Hajibayov based on neoclassicism traditions and revives some traditions of instrumental music of baroque times. The reviewed chain consists of two parts (Vivace and Presto) and these parts of form a small suite. Such internal formation of the work is noteworthy, therefore, such formation reveals the style of the Azerbaijani composer, as well as, reflects his musical tendencies. After Vatto I. Hajibayov revives the music style of the distant past which is full of elegance and fineness, grace and nobleness.<br> <br>In this context, each part of chain is a model in itself. Hence, it relates with any genre and corresponding form. Additionally, it is related with aforementioned forms that were arisen in the 16th and 17th centuries.</p> <p>Polytonality prevails in melodic style in key thinking of the work. Melody of the composer formed in polytonality of major and minor keys. We observe this feature in melodic style of the work. It should be mentioned that Hajibayov’s poly-systematic thinking is his most striking feature.</p> <p>Orchestra style demonstrated by Ismayil Hajibayov in his “Divertisment” – is very swift, dynamic and very emotional. The idea of making dynamic the music form expresses itself as a main style feature in composer’s work and confirms the conformity of the work that we analyse. The idea making dynamic of the work influenced all branches of music parlance and particularly in the style of orchestra. Strengthening the role of orchestra variations is of great importance in dramatic development of the work.</p> <p>To form the orchestra improvement on the variation method is very characteristic for Ismayil Hajibayov. This development principle that is reflected in the present work of composer is characterized absolutely with timbre (coloristic) and texture variation, also reveals polyphonic feature of orchestra thinking of the composer. This line is a continuance of the styles of D. Shostakovich, G. Garayev and it should be mentioned that, if Hajibayov refers to variation in his “Divertsment” work, he makes it subordinate to polyphonic improvement (ostinato polyphony).</p> <p>It appears that Ismayil Hajibayov who achieved perfection on the basis of classic music mastered these progressive traditions in his creativity. Orchestra style of composer is a peak achievement of world music, stimulated the following development of Azerbaijani music culture. <br>It also appears from analysis of music in “Divertisment” that any style and any system is not only a tool in the hands of talented Maestr, but also is a brilliant sample for elevating him to higher ideas. This music greatly influences the audience. The integrity of ideal, deep and detailed-thinking of the work, complexity of emotional and philosophical world is worked with finesse.</p> <p>It should also be noted that not only the form, but also, music parlance, texture, pure technical approaches and interpretation of the work are perfect. The strict and exigent taste, exigency to the tiniest details of this great Maestro allowed him to create a new masterpiece in the instrumental music field. <br>Idiosyncratic world sense of Hajibayov who is in the range of leading composers of 20th centuries. Creativity and perceiving its rules were in harmonic unity in composer’s mind. Thought expressed in his creative activities are of great importance from the worldwide standpoint (especially in the last decades).</p> <p>Writing the “Divertisment” having exceptional place in Ismayil Hacibayov’s creative activity for the orchestra with camera staff by reflecting the discrepancies of modern time, its closeness to classic symphonic chain should be mentioned. However, language-style, artistic expressiveness of the work is quite new for Azerbaijan national composer’s school, opened an extraordinary stage in its future.</p> <p>It should be concluded that Azerbaijani musical art was always connected with the flow of world processes especially with the advanced development of European countries. Tendency to derive advantage from human culture and join its cultural aspects with other cultures , have always been the leading idea of Azerbaijani art.</p> <p>Finally, it should be also noted that “Divertisment” work of Ismayil Hajibayov is decent and has a brilliant place in the world music. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>composer, divertissement, neoclassicism, dance, variation development</em></p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The transformation of cultural heritage: from the Ottoman’s dervish musicians to today’s professional ritual performers 2019-08-26T10:22:47+00:00 Fulya SOYLU BAĞÇECİ Oya Levendoğlu Öner Cenk Güray <p><strong>Extended abstract</strong><br>One of the deeply rooted and ancient traditions of faith that had evolved in Anatolia, Mevleviyeh has a special place amongst the belief systems with its proposition of a dhikr journey under the guidance of “music” in the name of journey to reach maturity. While there are various aspects of dervish edwucation in the Mevlevi tradition that are based on religious education rituals, an important part of this education involves the efforts to understand God and universe and to reach God through music. For this purpose, the Sema practices in which every movement represents a meaning within a systematic whole, and the Mevlevi ritual music accompanying Sema have created the most striking examples of the relationship between faith and music for centuries. Considering the influence of religious music tradition in the Ottoman world maqam tradition, the important role of these rituals in many practices related to maqam music will also be evident. The sole tradition of education and way of transmission in this period, the meşk tradition is a significant element serving not only the technical details of music but also the transfer of all kinds of behavior associated with this tradition in the transmission of Sema education and ritual music. Within this transmission, the aspect of music serving the spiritual maturation is combined with the teachings of Sufi thinking in the semantic world, and in this way, a musical ethic developed within the tradition of Mevleviyeh morals is transmitted from the master to the apprentice within the meşk tradition. Thus, the transmission between the master and the student is not only the practice of a piece but also the sharing of belief and behavior styles, which are extensions of the philosophical world of this music. For this reason, the rituals in the Mevlevi lodges, on the one hand, created a deep-rooted culture regarding belief systems, on the other hand, played a very active role in the progress of traditional music style. <br>With the enactment of the law on the closing of the tekkes and zawiyas in 1925, in addition to the performances of Mevlevi ritual tradition, all activities regarding the education of dervish musicians and the transmission of the ritual tradition came to an end. However, although the ban on the dervish education tradition has continued, the ritual tradition has come to the fore again since 1940s with the support of the Turkish state that accepts this tradition as a cultural heritage, and the rituals have been exhibited in many platforms both in Turkey and abroad. Today, this tradition continues to exist within the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and associations and foundations associated with Mevleviyeh. <br>In this study, the representation venues of the Mevlevi rituals and the meaning the ritual performers ascribe to this music will be evaluated based on today’s music and transmission venues, and the values that enable this tradition to reborn will be revealed. The study question is “In what ways Mevlevi rituals’ representation, education and performance venues have been transformed from past to present, and how has this transformation affected the semantic world of the performers representing this tradition?” <br>The study will be carried out using the culture analysis design, one of the qualitative research methods. The data will be collected mainly through interviews.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>mevlevi ritual tradition, tradition and representation, ritual performance, faith and music</em></p> 2019-08-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the implementation of ethnomusicology analysis to the composer’s creativity 2019-08-26T19:06:24+00:00 Gulnare Rafiq Manafova <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>Because that Avant-Garde destroyed classical canons of the music, it began to require different approach style in musicology and created some emptiness in the methods of analysis. Revolutionary changes in the style of the harmony, form and orchestral, minimalistic means of expression forced to create respectively tools of analysis. Experience of ethnomusicology that formed minimalistic tools of analysis for a long time seemed useful. Analysis of composer’s music based on intonation, timbre and using terminology can be an effective assistant for discovering the real purpose of music.<br>While looking through the XX century music, we are convinced that intonation methods of early folklore are not disappeared during development of musical thinking but also this period named as folklorism, neofolklore, new folklore wave by musicologists means returning with new social-cultural context and different intonation. Cause that archaic music examples have no nationality, it is applicable to use in research, archaic music of other ethnic group, nations and community (it includes kid folklore, ceremonial music, labor songs and etc. folklore music).</p> <p>The purpose of the study: 1) apply ethnographic terminology and research methods using the example of a bright representative of the creativity of the new folklore wave Javanshir Guliyev, 2) to prove the assertions using examples 3) to clarify as much as possible how consciously the creative process of introduction into archaic folklore occurred.</p> <p>In the research, the methodology of E. Alekseev for early intonation was most used. After receiving the results, the Bricolage term by K. Levi-Strauss and the patterns found between the repeater and the scientist were involved in the study. Some dark moments between the composer and the aesthetics of the modern period were clarified with reference to the idea of the composer-philosopher V. Martinov.<br>Sometimes a 3-level (pitch, dot-functional, intonational) study of music by composers, as in ethnomuscology, can guide us to more valuable results. Separately exploring the melodic language of the modern composer in the first place, you notice a huge difference in the structure of sentences, the quality of division and the technique of expression in classical thought. In our time, a simple musical example cannot express the full impression of music in one world just as in archaic folklore.</p> <p>Classification of melodic types in the world Ethnography: Engelodic - narrow in range melody, Pendelmelodic - undulating, going back and forth, melody similar to the pendulum movement, Treppenmelodic - melody moves layer after layer like a ladder, Fanfarmelor melodic - favorite and often used and often used melodies are used by fan, melodies are melodies. classical composers of the early period, Assendent (from the Latin. Ascender) rising melody. When viewing all these types of melody in the composer’s activities, we cannot assume that all levels of melody development in archaic folklore and the composer happened analogously. Of course, if we assume that the second was the first interval formed, and all other intervals followed by increasing, then this thought would make our lives easier. But the reality in folklore is a bit different. The terms used in our study such as “diсhord”, “trichord”, “tetrachord”, “pentachord” and “chromatics”, first of all, draw our attention to the interval composition of music. Of course, the problems of the modus, the reference sounds, the scale, and the fret-functionality are characteristics of the next period. The intonational nature of the melody is the main semantic symbol of both folk and composition music.</p> <p>In the works of composer Javanshir Guliyev, you can find many melodic examples created on two notes. But the presence of all the melodic types identified in the study does not indicate the presence of a similar stage in comparison with archaic folklore in the composer’s music. The image-emotional side is the decisive factor for a composer who chooses the range of melodies to be created.</p> <p>You will notice the similarity between archaic folklore and our object of observation if we classify the tonic of Javanshir Guliyev according to the tonic movements of the work of the researcher A.V. Rudnev: tonic movement, tonic variability, tonic-stagnation. You need to clarify the exact differences between tones, tones and tonic in order to find some parallels between archaic music and the composer’s work. A tone is a sounding unit of the universe, building material for cosmic resonance, tone is the intonation of the human soul, a method of expressing reality, and tonic is a symbol of human freedom, standing above accurate sound and precise intonation. In ancient times, man was separated from the sound stream and could only connect with him and touch the cosmic energy. Tonic was created by man to be away from the sound stream and focus on the newly created reality. The reason for this is that only when we meet with a functional tone can we think of real human freedom.</p> <p>Edward Alekseev in his study entitled “Early Folk Intonation” discovers 3 types of archaic folklore and ascribes them not only to the period of mode formation, but also prior to the formation of the notion of the pitch. 1. Register-based contradiction (α-melody) 2. Unstable glissando (β-melody) 3. Sound-soundly stable (γ-melody). A-melody is one of the archaic types of singing. You can see that this type is similar to the echo during the ceremony, shouts during the funeral and calls for long distances in everyday life. The simplest example of the melodic type β glissando is the loss of the pitch from top to bottom. Of course, the upward or downward glissando is an example of vocal melody. Since the volume of the lung capacity and the size of the human vocal chords are almost the same throughout the world, β-melody is international. Through a γ-melody of type III, you can see a good, noticeable sustained movement of sound. Because of walking in a range of small intervals (from a monochord to a tetrachord), this type is sometimes called “conquering the horizontals” or “walking tones”. Most of the ethnographic example we have is of this type. Inside the modal, narrow-range melodic turns with clearly pronounced speech intonations are usually referred to the pre-modal period. Based on the examples, we can decide that Javanshir Guliyev feels very comfortable with this type of archaic melodic types.</p> <p>It is necessary to mention the role of semiotic, regulating the working mechanisms of characters and characters in the study of monuments of archaic art. According to the semiotic theory of Charles Pierce, “character-symbol-interpretation” is important for the disclosure of meaning. Without interpretation, the symbol means nothing. Symbols appear to be the cause of demand for man, and humanity fills the void between reality and meaning. The role of semiosis in the formation and culture of man is enormous. A new cultural experience is not invented every time, but is built within the boundaries of an accessible symbol.</p> <p>Ancient people and modern composer, representing ancient human as well as modern thinking, use these symbols, symbols and intonations that do not need any translations. The methodology and method used in the article make it possible to better understand the music of the composer and come to philosophical results, which in the end can reveal the face of the modern period.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><br><em>neofolklore, ethnomusicology, semiosis, bricolage, archaic folklore, intonation</em></p> 2019-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##