The Analysis of Peyk-i Safâ Saz Semai in the context of classical kemence and cello (Derya Türkân and Uğur Işık performances)
Musical notation system is the common method used in the Classical Turkish Music education and training process of today. However, the works of Classical Turkish music are notated without showing the elements of ornamentation and articulation. It cannot be ignored that the use of note in music education facilitates the learning process. Contrary to this situation, most performance elements of the musical work are shown on the note in Western music. However, an instrument player who performs Classical Turkish music makes non-note ornamentations according to his/her own tone and school and there occur small and big differences from time to time between the notated work and the performance.
One of the most important auditory recordings that have survived to the present day and reflect the style and tone of Classical Turkish Music are Tanburi Cemil Bey's records. Since there was no tradition of recording the performances of instrument performers in the past, we can have access to the characteristics that reflect the performer’s tone thanks to the audio recordings of Tanburi Cemil Bey. This situation is important in terms of the performance and tone characteristics of the instrument players reaching the wider masses and transferring these characteristics from generation to generation by recording. Indeed, it is known that there are many important performers who were educated after Tanburi Cemil Bey and followed his school. Important performers such as Niyazi Sayın, İhsan Özgen, and Necdet Yaşar stated that they were impressed and inspired by Tanburi Cemil Bey. There have been many performers trained by these important names. These performers continue their tone and style as well. Here, in fact, although the musical notation system is used, it is seen that as a chain of meşk continues. There are many important classical Turkish music performers today. One of the prominent recognized figures who reflect the classical kemence style is Derya Türkan. Another musician is Uğur Işık. Işık is well recognized cello player in Classical Turkish music.
In this research, it is aimed to present the non-note ornamentation and articulation elements of the four hanes (sections) and teslim (recursive part at the end of each section) of the Peyk-i Sâfâ saz semaisi (instrumental music performed at the end of the fasıl music) which are performed by Derya Türkan and Uğur Işık together with three-stringed classical kemence and cello by notating them. This research was limited to the audiovisual recordings of the three-stringed classical kemence and cello performers of the four hane and teslim of Tiryaki Petraki’s Peyk-i Sâfâ saz semai.
The documentary research method was used for this research. In this study, firstly, we accessed to the visual and auditory recording of the Peyk-i Sâfâ saz semaisi that was played by the three-stringed classical kemence performer Derya Türkan and the cello performer Uğur Işık from you tube. After accessing this auditory and visual recording, we obtained the notes of the aforementioned saz semaisi through the website named "Nota Arşivleri" (Note Archives). The visual and auditory recording on YouTube were notated by musical dictation in order to reveal the non-note ornamentation and articulation elements of the three-stringed classical kemence and cello. We use three staffs for understanding common and different aspects of the traditional notes of the musical work and the notes obtained by dictation. There are the traditional notes of the work in the first staff, non-note ornamentation and articulation elements in the performance of the three-stringed classical kemence in the second staff, and non-note ornamentation and articulation elements in the performance of the cello in the third staff.
When Derya Türkan's classical kemence performance is considered, it is seen that the non-note ornamentation and articulation elements which were employed in the work were used without disrupting the mode and structural understanding of the work. Considering the whole work, it was concluded that Derya Türkan frequently used the “grace note” ornament element among the non-note ornament elements during the classical kemence performance. In this context, it can be thought that the element in question was used as a reflective element of classical kemence behavior. Furthermore, it can be said that Staccato, which is mostly seen at the end of the meters, was used both to prevent monotony and to give a strong structure to the sounds. Especially Glissando, used between two sounds, added an effective and soft pattern to the mode. It can be thought that the use of the “Yegâh” pitch together with the main sound in the nature of dem (accompanying the music) creates a polyphony inside the work and it does not seem another polyphonic element apart from this in our analysis.
When the cello performance of Uğur Işık is analyzed, it is seen that the non-note ornament and articulation elements in the work are used adhering to the original note of the work. It is understood that the cello, which is used for both solo and accompaniment purposes in Classical Turkish Music, has the role of accompaniment in the work subject to the research. It is known that the cello meets the need for long sound and bass in Classical Turkish Music. While the bass character of the instrument was used in the Peyk-i Sâfa saz semaisi, the treble sounds were also revealed. However, it is seen that he did not use the non-note ornament and articulation elements that he used during the performance as often as kemence and he preferred to adhere to the original note of the work. It can be said that he used the “grace note” ornament element that was used in the work in melodic structures almost similar to the kemence. However, although the grace notes were performed in a similar way, it is seen that they were performed in accordance with the structure of the cello. When examined from this point of view, it is understood that Uğur Işık's cello performance was performed in a way to highlight the unique, agile character of the classical kemence.
Considering the ways of performing the instrument work in the study of both performers, it is seen that the cello performance usually has the nature of following the classical kemence performance. It was concluded that both performers maintained the long sounds in the work and adapted the “grace note” ornament, which is a common characteristic of the classical kemence, to the cello instrument. In addition, it was concluded that both performers of classical kemence and cello performed the gruppetto structure in harmony at the end of the meters.
classical kemence, cello, derya türkan, uğur ışık, classical turkish music