Türk müziğinde notasyon ve miftâh-ı nota
Türk müzik kültüründeki ilk nota yazım çalışmaları Göktürkler ve Uygurlar döneminde başlamıştır. Bu toplumlar tarafından kullanılan Kuça notasyonu Ebced notasının temelini oluşturmuştur. Türklerin İslamiyet’i kabul edişinden sonra Ebced notasyonu yaygınlaşmaya başlanmış ve bu sistem yaklaşık olarak 700 yıl boyunca bu kültüre ait müzik eserlerinin kayıt altına alınması amacı ile kullanılmıştır. Ebced sisteminin kullanımı devam ederken, ilerleyen süreçte Kantemiroğlu, Tanburi Küçük Artin, Çanakkaleli Hrisantos ve Hamparsum Limonciyan gibi müzik bilimciler Ebced notasyonu dışında kalan sistemlere uygun nota yazım şekilleri geliştirmişlerdir. Bu nota yazımlarından bazıları yoğun olarak kullanılmış fakat bazıları müzik icracıları tarafından kabul görmemiştir. Miftâh-ı Nota, birkaç farklı nota yazım şeklini içerisinde barındıran ve oluşturulduğu dönem içerisindeki toplumsal ve müzikal etkileşimin izlerini taşıyan özgün bir kaynaktır. Eser içerisinde kullanılan notasyon, kısmi olarak gelenekten kısmi olarak ta Batı’dan etkilenerek oluşturulmuştur. Bu notasyon sistemi, iki farklı nota yazım yaklaşımının (harf notası-dizekli nota) birleştirilmesiyle oluşturulmuş fakat dönemi içerisinde yeteri kadar yaygınlık kazanmamıştır.
Notation systems in Turkish music and Miftâh-ı Nota
The idea of notation to melodies is very useful for reminding music, playing pieces with the nuances and special dynamics that the composer wants to see in the performance. Correct notation is upon the notation systems that were formed according to requirements. Various notation systems were used in different stages of history. When one look to the history of notation systems, easily can there are four types of notation systems. These systems are the letter, letter-figure, tablature, and staff notation systems. The oldest one is the letter notation system. This system created by using letters of alphabet systematically.
In this study, We will examine to Miftah-ı Nota that is the letter and staff notation systems are jointly explained in it. This book is really important due to reflecting musical understanding and affection of this paradigm on musical notation systems in the Tanzimat era. This book is really important due to reflecting musical understanding and affections of this paradigm on musical notation systems in the Tanzimat era. The first notation activity in Turkish music culture started in the period of Göktürk and Uyghur. The Kuça notation system was used by these societies. Actually, this system can be seen as the basis of the Ebced notation system. After the acceptance of Islam by Turks, the Ebced notation has started to be seen and has been used for the purpose of throughout approximately 700 years. While using the Ebced system has been continued, other notation systems have been developed. Musicologists, such as Kantemiroğlu, Tanburi Küçük Artin, Hrisantos from Çanakkale and Hamparsum Limonciyan have developed notation systems for the different theoric systems. Some of these notations were used extensively, but some of them were not accepted by the musicians.
Some of the Dynamics of the Turkish music had been changed after the Westernisation movement of Ottoman State. One of theses Dynamics is new notation system, modelled according to Western notation system. Miftah-ı nota, written as a result of this change process by Kanuni Şamşı Hasan Dede and Ahmet Rıfat Bey. This new notation system consists of original characters.
There is no transcription or analyse of Miftah-ı Nota in literature. We can see its name on some sources but can’t see any source that gives information about its content. It is 30 pages long and written with Nesih writing style. The year of Hicri 1291 seems as publication time on the book. There are three editions of this book. The edition that we examine recorded with the catalogue number of 00998 in the Muallim Cevdet Ottoman Books section of İBB (İstanbul Metropol Municipality) Atatürk Library. In addition to explaining notation system, this book consists some information about Turkish music. After the get approval Education Ministry it got to feature of being the textbook. Because of this, all issues explained under the unities in it.
It starts with the chapter of introduction. In this chapter, writers state that this system was created to overcome some difficulties that Kanuni Şamlı Hasan Dede faced while he was teaching Kanun to students. In the chapter, titled as İhdarat, giving basic information about the western staff notation system. Additionally, details of this system are given by associated with some instruments such as the piano, harmonica, Basson, kanun, santur, tambur, violin, and ney.
As result, it seems this book consists some features that show partial-staff notation system was tried to create with this book. This system jointly consists of some aspects of the Ebced and Western staff notation systems. In this context, it seems that alteration, nuance and repetition symbols are nearly current western notation system. Additionally, this system consists a notation staff that reminds to current staff. Apart from this affection of Ebced notation system is seen on the sign system. But unfortunately, it can be said that this system could not spread because it is based on the meşk system and some other reasons.