http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/issue/feed Rast Musicology Journal 2019-01-12T14:57:12+03:00 Fikri Soysal fikrisoysall@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>RAST&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary, refereed journal devoted to issues and practices in the music research.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/179 Şükrullah Çelebi’nin Edvar-ı Musiki eserinin 30. ve 31. fasılları: Ses sağlığı 2019-01-12T14:57:12+03:00 Gonca Soysal goncaakurtt@gmail.com Nildem Kızılaslan nildemkizilaslan@gmail.com Fikri Soysal fikrisoysall@gmail.com <p>Bu çalışma 15. Yüzyıl müzik teorisyenlerinden Ahmedoğlu Şükrullah Çelebi’nin Edvar-ı Musiki<br>(EM) eserinin otuz ve otuz birinci fasıllarında ses sağlığına yönelik önerilerini günümüz modern<br>tıp çerçevesinde açıklamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Müellif tıp, musiki ve dini ilimlerde uzmanlığı<br>bulunan, Türkçe, Arapça ve Fars dillerini iyi seviyede bilen bir âlimdir. Otuz ve otuzbirinci fasıllarını<br>çalıştığımız kitabın ilk 15 faslı Kitabül Edvar’ın Türk diline tercümesi, bir kısmı Kenzü’t- Tuhaf’dan<br>alıntı bir kısmı ise müstakildir. Ses sağlığı, ses sisteminde yer alan tüm organ ve yapıların fizyolojik<strong><br></strong>olarak uyumlu bir şekilde çalışması anlamına gelmektedir. Bu fizyolojik uyumda herhangi bir<br>bozukluk ses sağlığını olumsuz etkilemekte ve ses kusurlarına neden olmaktadır. Müellif otuzuncu<br>fasılda sese iyi gelen yiyecekler bildirmiştir. Bunların başlıcaları şunlardır: Ispanak, ebegümeci,<br>pişmemiş yumurta sarısı, incir, bakla, bal şerbeti, hardal, badem yağı gibi maddelerin sesi<br>açtığından bahsedilmiştir. Otuz Birinci fasılda ise kar suyu içmek, ekşi yiyecekler yemek, esrar<br>içmek, istifra etmek ve yatarken bir şeyler okumak ses kısıklığına ya da bozukluğuna neden olduğu<br>belirtilmektedir. Çalışmamızda Şükrullah Çelebi’nin 15.yy. da yazılmış eserinde bulunan önerilerinin<br>günümüz alternatif tıp uygulamaları ile birçok bakımdan uyumlu olduğu görülmüştür.</p> <p><strong>Chapters 30 and 31 of Şükrullah Çelebi’s Work Edvar-ı Musiki: Voice Health</strong></p> <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study was carried out to explain the recommendations of Ahmedoğlu Şükrullah Çelebi, one of the ulemas in Amasya, on voice health in the thirtieth and thirty-first chapters of his work EM within the scope of today’s modern medicine. The author was born in 1388 although it is not certain, and he was a scholar who had expertise in medicine, music and religious sciences and knew Turkish, Arabic and Persian languages at a good level. EM was translated into Turkish by Amasyalı Şükrullah. The first 15 chapters are the translation of Kitabül Edvar and some of the chapters were put together from Kenzü’t- Tuhaf. The others are the author’s own research. We focus on the thirtieth and thirty-first chapters. Voice health refers to the physiologically compatible operation of all organs and structures in the voice system. In this physiological compliance, any disorder negatively affects the voice health and leads to voice defects. The author reported the foods that are good for voice in the thirtieth chapter. The main ones are as follows. It was mentioned that the foods like spinach, marshmallow, uncooked egg yolk, fig, bean, hydromel, mustard, and almond oil refresh the voice. In the thirty-first chapter, the situations disturbing the voice are reported. In other words, it is stated that drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying cause hoarseness or voice disorder. In our study, the recommendations in Şükrullah Çelebi’s work written in the 15th century were found to be compatible with today’s alternative medicine practices in many respects.</p> <p>Human being becomes a socio-cultural entity after coming into the world. By this characteristic, people are the beings communicating and interacting with the environment. Voice is one of the most important tools they use while doing this. In fact, voice and the use of voice appear in many situations from people’s communication to the fulfilment of their works. While some occupational groups such as teachers, lawyers, health professionals, and sales representatives use their voices by speaking intensely, on the other hand, some occupational groups use their voices to sing. In addition to occupations that require intensive speech, musicians who play music by using their voice further need a healthy voice compared to others.</p> <p>This descriptive study was carried out by performing a literature review for the keywords in terms of voice health mentioned in the 30th and 31st chapters and by obtaining scientific data. In the first stage of the study, “spinach, marshmallow, uncooked egg yolk, fig, bean, hydromel, mustard, and almond oil,” which are among the foods that are good for voice, in chapter 30 constituted the first keywords in the literature review. The explanation of the mechanism of action of the first keywords in terms of voice health based on the literature data constituted the second stage of the study. In the third stage of the study, “drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying,” which are among the factors disturbing the voice mentioned in chapter 31, were discussed as the second keywords. The explanation of the physiopathology of these factors according to the literature constituted the final stage of the study.</p> <p>It is thought that Şükrüllah Çelebi might have indicated that the fact the macro and micronutrients that the foods mentioned in chapter 30 of EM contain with respect to their effects on voice health have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and functional nutrient properties affects the proper functioning of metabolism, and therefore they are good for voice. In the results regarding the foods that are good for voice in line with the information given by the author, it is observed that he recommended marshmallow, fig, hydromel, mustard and almond oil in a direct connection with voice and also included the nutrients such as spinach, eggs, and bean that we can consider to have indirect effects. It can be said that the author evaluates the individual as a whole with respect to maintaining the state of being healthy as nowadays and that his recommendations are aimed at contributing to the good health of both larynx and vocal cords and the whole body. When the vitamins and nutrient contents of the foods that are good for voice were examined in general, it was found that the proteins, vitamin A and vitamin E were common. With respect to the benefits of these vitamins to the body, they contribute indirectly to the voice health in terms of preventing the common cold and strengthening the immune system.</p> <p>The results related to the physiopathology of the factors that are bad for voice indicate that each of the possible actions negatively affects the voice health with a direct effect on the structures forming the voice. It can be said that the actions of “drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying” reported by Şükrullah Çelebi are compatible with the literature.</p> <p>In conclusion, it appears that Şükrullah Çelebi’s recommendations for the foods that are good for voice are largely suitable in terms of the macro and micronutrients that the foods contain, their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and functional nutrient properties, their effect on the functioning of metabolism in a way to contribute to the maintenance of hemostasis, and that the factors that are bad for voice are largely compatible with the explanation of the negative effects of their physiopathology on voice health. In the future, it is recommended to carry out descriptive studies on the prevalence of voice health problems in society and alternative medical practices for voice health, and interdisciplinary studies that will explain the effects of nutrients that are good for voice.</p> 2018-12-30T04:12:14+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/190 H. S. Arel’in Türk mûsikîsine bakışında ütopyacılık, Garpçılık ve Türkçülüğün yeri 2019-01-01T19:28:04+03:00 Okan Murat Öztürk okan_murat_ozturk@hotmail.com <p>Türk müziğinin bugünkü teori, icra ve eğitiminin gelişiminde en belirleyici role sahip olan H. S.<br>Arel, bu makalede, Türk mûsikîsine yaklaşımında öne çıkan ütopyacı, Garpçı ve Türkçü söylemleri<br>üzerinden, eleştirel bir değerlendirmeye tabi tutulmaktadır. Buradaki ana amaç, bu üç yönelimin,<br>kültürel konumlanış ve ideoloji bakımından Arel’in söylemlerinde nasıl şekillendiğini tespit etmektir.<br>Arel’in Türk mûsikîsi üzerine yazılarının önemli bir kısmı, bizzat kendisinin sahibi olduğu popüler<br>mecmualarda yayınlanmıştır. Bu yazılarda kullanmayı tercih ettiği söylemlere göre o, her şeyden<br>evvel bir ütopyacıdır. Türk mûsikîsinin kendi zamanındaki ‘tecelliyat’ından açıkça rahatsızdır. Arel,<br>‘başka bir âlem’e mahsus bir Türk mûsikîsi hayaline sahiptir. İkinci temel yön, onun Garpçılığıdır.<br>Tipik bir Jön Türk olarak Arel’in medeniyet anlayışı tamamen Batı-merkezcidir. Söylemlerinde,<br>tekâmül, terakki ve inkişaf kavramlarını ısrarla kullanmaya özel bir önem vermektedir. Üçüncüsü,<br>söylemleri açısından en zayıf vurguya sahip olan Türkçülük yönüdür. Arel’in Türkçülüğü,<br>dönemindeki siyasi milliyetçiliklerden bütünüyle uzaktır ve hemen tamamen ‘dilde sadeleşme’ye<br>taraftar olmakla sınırlıdır. Sonuçta Arel, sadece, Garplılaştırmak suretiyle terakki ettirilebilecek<br>ütopik bir Türk mûsikîsine ilgi göstermiştir. Bu nedenle de Arel’in Türk mûsikîsiyle ilgili söylemleri,<br>ütopyacılıkla özdeş Garpçılık ve kendi kuşağındaki siyasi Türkçülüklerle ilgisi bulunmayan dil<br>milliyetçiliği temelinde şekillenmiştir.</p> <p><strong>The place of utopianism, Westernism and Turkism in H. S. Arel’s Turkish music perspective</strong><br><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>Hüseyin Sadettin Arel (1880-1955) is the person who constructed the ‘westernized’ theoretical framework, which shapes the current performance and education of Turkish music. This study focuses on the intellectual foundations of Arel’s way of relating to Turkish music and aims at an analysis of how these ideas are shaped in his personal discourses. In this context, Arel’s discourses on Turkish music are examined from the standpoints of utopianism, Westernism and Turkism. It seems possible that the discursive analysis of these three orientations, which are seen to occupy an important place in the cultural position of Arel, can be considered as a key in making some determinations about his attitude towards Turkish music.</p> <p>Discourse conceptually refers to the ideological and purposeful use of language as a practice of producing meaning. It is the basis of discourse studies to investigate how the language is used for what purpose and what is said. Therefore, it is important for discourse researches how a certain idea is conveyed to a particular community via language through rhetorical strategies. The use of language in the pragmatic sense might have some ideological purposes. These objectives are intended to ensure that the listener or reader locate himself in a certain range of reactions or thoughts. In this context, the discourse is revealed by the expression practices of a certain agenda. Discourse has the purpose of influencing and manipulating the media reader (verbal, written or visual), especially in the fields of communication, politics, news, advertising and law. The typical manifestation in the field of politics emerges in propaganda work. Therefore, critical discourse analysis, together with the rhetoric, is used as a method for understanding broader cultural and ideological impact of language on society. The case of Arel’s being both a jurist and a media boss make this theoretical framework special for him. The profession of law provides an education where rhetoric and discourse are taught as a course. Rhetoric, especially in law, is considered as an art of persuasion. Language practice, which aims to convince, is one of the basic topics of discourse research, naturally, in terms of effective speaking and rhetoric.<br>Utopianism as a special state of consciousness is not to be satisfied with the political, social, legal and administrative conditions that are experienced in it and to be in a conscious and willful intellectual and action struggle to change these conditions. It is possible to see Arel’s utopianism clearly in his writings, publications, activities and ideas directed at everything he feels uncomfortable in the Ottoman world where he was born and raised throughout his life. But Arel has put forward clearly the utopian way of his thinking, a year before his death, by publishing ‘This is another world’ series as five parts in the Musiki Mecmuası (‘Music Magazine’). In this long series of articles, Arel mentioned of an ‘island of utopia’ where all issues of Turkish music have been handled. He concludes his serial with following sentences: “Now, a node remains unresolved: Some of my acquaintances asked me where the country I was talking about. Some thought it was Cyprus or Spain. Let me tell them all that the name of the country I went was: UTOPIA”. In addition to this concrete statement, the clearest statement of his utopianism is seen in the following sentence: “I am passionate about the dream of Turkish music at future, not about the present state.” It is a fact that Arel’s generation understood utopianism as Westernism. For them, defending Western civilization means being revolutionist and utopian at the same time. Therefore, there is no possibility to make a sharp distinction between utopianism and Westernism in terms of his discourses.</p> <p>Westernism, which has gained the qualification of being the strongest political movement in the Second Constitutional era, had been put forward in the publication policy of the Şehbâl Magazine owned by Arel. The writer staff of the Şehbâl was composed of leading Westernists of the period. As a typical Westernist, Arel himself looked at the Ottoman world in which he lived, in the framework of ‘Western conceptions of the Orient’, which Said emphasized in the sub-title of his famous book. The most important characteristic of Arel, who believed that the liberation of the Ottomans would only be possible by Westernism, in his relationship with Turkish music, is his admiration and severe desire for Western civilization. Arel believed that Turkish music was underdeveloped, poor, devoid of progress and evolution, couldn’t be evolved and had no power of development. He tries to spread his opinions into the whole of society through an effective propaganda language as a media boss and writer. For the salvation of Turkish music, he insisted on the necessity of utilizing the methods and techniques of the Western music. According to Arel, it was possible to internalize and adopt this benefit through seizing and arrogation as a utopian formulation. In this voluntary attitude, there is an acceptance, willingness and condemnation which invalidate resistance. His slogan for this situation was: “Western technique in the service of Turkish art!”</p> <p>One of his discursive orientations, which may be considered the weakest, was the Turkism aspect due to the fact that it is full of uncertainties in various aspects and the delay in its emergence. First of all, it is not possible to consider Arel as a political Turkist. However, it is important that he began to define himself as a Turkist and published the Türklük Mecmuası (Turkishness Magazine) on the eve of World War II. Arel favored a political transformation based on the transition to the Western civilization. He is absolutely opposed to all of the traditional components that may constitute obstacles to this fundamental purpose. Even in situations where he appeared to defend Turkish music, he asserted that this music could ultimately exist only on the basis of Westernization. Therefore, Arel’s Turkism which consist essentially a kind of language nationalism is far from mainstream Turkist movements such as Turanism, Panturkism or Central Asianism. He advocates mainly the use of purified Turkish and move apart from the Ottoman language. His point of view of Turkish folk music is an important issue which makes Arel’s Turkism problematic in terms of the period. Turkists used ‘the national Turkish music’ discourse, which was invented in Edinburgh in the 18th century, against the Ottoman culture and identity. According to their claim, a music which has both national and international qualities at the same time would only emerge from the combination of Turkish folk music and Western harmony. Considering folk music as a primitive, rural and simple variant of Turkish music, Arel clearly underestimates the claims of the Turkists. According to him, the claim of the Turkists that a modern national music can only be made by harmonizing Turkish folk songs is in fact similar to ‘making a palace from the shack’.</p> <p>The main theme of Arel’s writings on the imagined Turkish music was the necessity of evolution and progression of this music, which is in primitive, simple and underdeveloped form in its present state. In this context, he claimed that Turkish music, in fact, was ten times more capable of progress than the West. Arel believed that Western music has progressed through evolution and had superior techniques. His idea of composing a new and polyphonic Turkish music was based on a composition that could be described as neo-Alla Turca within the framework of Western music. The main purpose of this neo-style was the use of some advanced instruments besides Turkish perdes (pitches), makams (melodic modes) and usuls (rhythmic modes). All of Arel’s discourses were directed towards his dream of a new Turkish music that has been positioned within Western music and has been brought into a contemporary and civilized form with the participation of genius composers. As a result, the main discourse of Arel was built on the idea of progressing Turkish music in the axis of the Westernist utopia.</p> 2018-12-30T04:08:22+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/170 Muhayyer-sünbüle makamı 2019-01-01T19:28:23+03:00 Emrah Hatipoğlu eposta@emrahhatipoglu.com <p>Türk mûsikîsi makam tarihi sürecinde verilen tarifler ve bestelenen eserler, kendi dönemlerinde kullanılan makamların seyir anlayışları açısından haberci durumunda olmuşlardır. İncelemelerde bazı makamların küçük değişikliklerle, bazılarının ise büyük farklılıklarla zamanımıza ulaştığı anlaşılmaktadır. Bu makalede ele alacağımız Muhayyer-Sünbüle makâmı da bu farklılaşmanın içinde yer almaktadır. Muhayyer-Sünbüle makâmına ait tarifler ve besteler tahlil edildiğinde ortaya farklı durumlar çıkmıştır. Repertuvarda bulunan Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Sünbüle makamlarıyla yazılmış bazı eserlerin, bununla beraber Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Muhayyer-Kürdî makamları ile yazılmış yine bazı eserlerin, aynı seyre sahip oldukları anlaşılmıştır. Bu karmaşıklığın sebebini araştırmak amacıyla hazırladığımız bu makalede; Sünbüle, Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Muhayyer-Kürdî makamlarına ait tarifler ve eserler incelenmiş, XVIII. asırdan bu yana oluşan değişiklikler, tarif ve eser örnekleriyle gözler önüne serilmiştir. Adı geçen makamların araştırılması sırasında Muhayyer makâmının başka bir kullanımı da ortaya çıkmış ve bu kullanımın bazı Muhayyer-Kürdî eserlerdeki önemi vurgulanmıştır. Sonuç olarak; Nâsır Dede zamanında ilk tarifi verilen Muhayyer-Sünbüle terkîbinin bir dönem Sünbüle makâmının yerine geçtiği, daha sonraki dönemde ise ikinci nevî olarak belirttiğimiz Muhayyer-Kürdî makâmının seyrini aldığı anlaşılmıştır.</p> <p><strong>Muhayyer-sünbüle maqam</strong><br><strong>Extended Abstract</strong><br>Maqam descriptions and pieces are very important sources, for understanding seyir specialities (special melodic movements that are used for explaining maqams) in their own era. Academic researches show that some Maqams have reached the present day through small changes, while some of them profoundly transformed. This article focuses on the Muhayyer-Sünbüle Maqam, which is one of the transformed maqams. After analysing to maqam descriptions and compositions, different findings were obtained. for example, some of the pieces, composed in the Maqams Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Sünbüleshare the same seyir with some of the pieces composed in the Maqams Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Muhayyer Kürdî. This study aims to investigate to reasons that is behind this complexity by analysing the Maqam descriptions and compositions. <br>The concept of Maqam is defined under three different approaches. The first approach is based on the period between Safiyuddin-Kantemiroğlu. The second includes the period between Kantemiroğlu-Rauf Yekta Bey, while the third spans the period between Rauf Yekta Bey and today. The first traces of Muhayyer-Sünbüle description during the time of Nâsır Dede, that can be shown in the second period. The Maqam descriptions of this period were written in the fret-by-fret melodic development approach. Therefore, for the analysis of Maqam descriptions, this article refers to the music theory books and compositions of the second period as well as the music theory books and compositions of the third period, aiming to emphasize the changes we observe today. <br>In order to show how the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle has transformed through time, the Maqam descriptions between the 18th and 20th centuries were analysed, which includes the descriptions by Kantemiroğlu (18th c.), Tanbûrî Artin (18th c.), Hızır Ağa (18th c.), Abdülbâkî Nâsır Dede (18th c.), Hâşim Bey (19th c.), Kâzım Uz (20th c.), H.S. Arel (20th c.) ve E. Karadeniz (20th c.). Additionally, compositions recorded in the repertoire from these periods were also analysed. <br>Firstly, the Maqam Sünbüle was analysed for the purpose of analysing Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle. Maqam descriptions and some of the sample compositions of the Maqam were analysed, which spans the period between Kantemiroğlu and today. The first description of the Muhayyer-Sünbüle terkîb,( compound Maqam), that was written by Abdülbâkî Nâsır Dede and the pieces composed in this Maqam, as well as the Maqam descriptions were analysed. This study suggests that most of the pieces composed in the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle are very similar with some Zekâî Dede’s compositions, which he composed in the Maqam Muhayyer-Kûrdi. <br>The Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle has gone through two phases until today. Phase one is when Muhayyer-Sünbüle started to substitute the Maqam Sünbüle. The second stage had started with when Muhayyer-Sünbüle took a different course by adopting the Kurdish style while reaching the cadence.<br>It is ascertained that the Maqams Sünbüle and Muhayyer-Sünbüle are two different Maqams. Even though Nâsır Dede gives a clear description of Muhayyer-Sünbüle in his book, the descriptions and compositions from the eras following his time suggest a different approach and Maqam progression<br>It is also ascertained that there is a great similarity between the Maqam progressions employed in Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Muhayyer-Kürdî. The analysis of descriptions and compositions up until today shows that the Maqam Muhayyer-Kürdî (first seen on the description of Hızır Ağa), has two different types as with or without Sabâ. <br>The analysis of Muhayyer-Kürdî compositions suggests that Sabâ style was used strikingly. The analysis shows that the reason behind the use of the Sabâ style is there are two types of the Maqam Muhayyer. <br>Today, the compositions that are recorded as Muhayyer Sünbüle were not composed in accordance with the actual melodic progression of the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle. The Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle in current approach is actually the second type of the Maqam Muhayyer-Kürdî. <br>Re-study of Muhayyer sünbüle maqam and reanalysing of the compositions, recorded as Muhayyer sunbüle in literature is extremely useful for maqam music area. After this study we suggest new statements one of them as follows; if one composition doesn't go through the cadence by Saba and go through by Saba Zemzeme and Kurdi, it can be better said that, composed in Second type Muhayyer Kurdi or Sünbüle-Zemzeme/Sünbüle-Kürdî, than Muhayyer Sünbüle.</p> 2018-12-30T04:15:55+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/173 Türk müziğinde notasyon ve miftâh-ı nota 2019-01-01T19:31:28+03:00 Ahmet Feyzi ahmet.feyzi@atauni.edu.tr <p>Türk müzik kültüründeki ilk nota yazım çalışmaları Göktürkler ve Uygurlar döneminde başlamıştır. Bu toplumlar tarafından kullanılan Kuça notasyonu Ebced notasının temelini oluşturmuştur. Türklerin İslamiyet’i kabul edişinden sonra Ebced notasyonu yaygınlaşmaya başlanmış ve bu sistem yaklaşık olarak 700 yıl boyunca bu kültüre ait müzik eserlerinin kayıt altına alınması amacı ile kullanılmıştır. Ebced sisteminin kullanımı devam ederken, ilerleyen süreçte Kantemiroğlu, Tanburi Küçük Artin, Çanakkaleli Hrisantos ve Hamparsum Limonciyan gibi müzik bilimciler Ebced notasyonu dışında kalan sistemlere uygun nota yazım şekilleri geliştirmişlerdir. Bu nota yazımlarından bazıları yoğun olarak kullanılmış fakat bazıları müzik icracıları tarafından kabul görmemiştir. Miftâh-ı Nota, birkaç farklı nota yazım şeklini içerisinde barındıran ve oluşturulduğu dönem içerisindeki toplumsal ve müzikal etkileşimin izlerini taşıyan özgün bir kaynaktır. Eser içerisinde kullanılan notasyon, kısmi olarak gelenekten kısmi olarak ta Batı’dan etkilenerek oluşturulmuştur. Bu notasyon sistemi, iki farklı nota yazım yaklaşımının (harf notası-dizekli nota) birleştirilmesiyle oluşturulmuş fakat dönemi içerisinde yeteri kadar yaygınlık kazanmamıştır.</p> <p><strong>Notation systems in Turkish music and Miftâh-ı Nota</strong></p> <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>The idea of notation to melodies is very useful for reminding music, playing pieces with the nuances and special dynamics that the composer wants to see in the performance. Correct notation is upon the notation systems that were formed according to requirements. Various notation systems were used in different stages of history. When one look to the history of notation systems, easily can there are four types of notation systems. These systems are the letter, letter-figure, tablature, and staff notation systems. The oldest one is the letter notation system. This system created by using letters of alphabet systematically.</p> <p>In this study, We will examine to Miftah-ı Nota that is the letter and staff notation systems are jointly explained in it. This book is really important due to reflecting musical understanding and affection of this paradigm on musical notation systems in the Tanzimat era. This book is really important due to reflecting musical understanding and affections of this paradigm on musical notation systems in the Tanzimat era. The first notation activity in Turkish music culture started in the period of Göktürk and Uyghur. The Kuça notation system was used by these societies. Actually, this system can be seen as the basis of the Ebced notation system. After the acceptance of Islam by Turks, the Ebced notation has started to be seen and has been used for the purpose of throughout approximately 700 years. While using the Ebced system has been continued, other notation systems have been developed. Musicologists, such as Kantemiroğlu, Tanburi Küçük Artin, Hrisantos from Çanakkale and Hamparsum Limonciyan have developed notation systems for the different theoric systems. Some of these notations were used extensively, but some of them were not accepted by the musicians.</p> <p>Some of the Dynamics of the Turkish music had been changed after the Westernisation movement of Ottoman State. One of theses Dynamics is new notation system, modelled according to Western notation system. Miftah-ı nota, written as a result of this change process by Kanuni Şamşı Hasan Dede and Ahmet Rıfat Bey. This new notation system consists of original characters.</p> <p>There is no transcription or analyse of Miftah-ı Nota in literature. We can see its name on some sources but can’t see any source that gives information about its content. It is 30 pages long and written with Nesih writing style. The year of Hicri 1291 seems as publication time on the book. There are three editions of this book. The edition that we examine recorded with the catalogue number of 00998 in the Muallim Cevdet Ottoman Books section of İBB (İstanbul Metropol Municipality) Atatürk Library. In addition to explaining notation system, this book consists some information about Turkish music. After the get approval Education Ministry it got to feature of being the textbook. Because of this, all issues explained under the unities in it.</p> <p>It starts with the chapter of introduction. In this chapter, writers state that this system was created to overcome some difficulties that Kanuni Şamlı Hasan Dede faced while he was teaching Kanun to students. In the chapter, titled as İhdarat, giving basic information about the western staff notation system. Additionally, details of this system are given by associated with some instruments such as the piano, harmonica, Basson, kanun, santur, tambur, violin, and ney.</p> <p>As result, it seems this book consists some features that show partial-staff notation system was tried to create with this book. This system jointly consists of some aspects of the Ebced and Western staff notation systems. In this context, it seems that alteration, nuance and repetition symbols are nearly current western notation system. Additionally, this system consists a notation staff that reminds to current staff. Apart from this affection of Ebced notation system is seen on the sign system. But unfortunately, it can be said that this system could not spread because it is based on the meşk system and some other reasons.</p> 2018-12-30T04:17:28+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/181 Osmanlı döneminde Diyarbakır’da mûsikî kültürü ve mûsikîşinaslar 2019-01-01T19:28:41+03:00 Hüseyin Akpınar akpinar64@hotmail.com <p>Selçuklular zamanında Anadolu’da temelleri atılan Türk makam mûsikîsi, Osmanlılar döneminde ilerleme kaydetmiştir. Özellikle XVI. ve XVII. yüzyılda Anadolu’da Türk makam mûsikîsi, hem bestekârlık hem de icrâ alanında büyük bir gelişme göstermiştir. Bu coğrafyada yüzlerce mûsikîşinâs yetişmiştir. Osmanlı başkenti İstanbul başta olmak üzere, “Küçük İstanbul” olarak isimlendirilen Diyarbakır da bu dönemde mûsikî alanında mümbit bir yer olmuştur. Bu dönemde İstanbul dışında kayda değer sayıda mûsikîşinasın yetiştiği merkezlerden biri Diyarbakır’dır. Şeyhülislâm Mehmed Es’ad Efendi’nin (ö. 1753) XVI. ve XVII. yüzyılda yaşamış yüz kadar bestekârın biyografisini ihtiva eden Türk Mûsikî tarihinde yegâne “Mûsikîşinâslar Tezkiresi” olarak kabul edilen Atrâbü’l-Âsâr adlı kitabında Diyarbakırlı sekiz mûsikîşinâsın hayatı hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Osmanlı padişahlarından Sultan IV. Mehmed (1648-1688) ve Sultan III. Ahmed (1703-1730) dönemlerinde Diyarbakır’da meşhur olan sekiz mûsikîşinas şunlardır: Ahmed Verdî Çelebi, Çemen-zâde Mehmed Çelebi, Çuvaldız-zâde İsmail Çelebi, Mahmud Çelebi, Seyyid Nuh Çelebi, Şehlâ Mustafa Çelebi, Şeyh-zâde Ahmed Efendi ve Yahya Çelebi’dir. Farklı meslek gruplarına mensup mezkûr mûsikîşinaslar, Osmanlı döneminde Diyarbakır’da Türk mûsikîsinin nazariyat, bestekârlık ve hânendelik alanlarında şöhret sahibi olmuşlardır.</p> <p><strong>Musicians and musical culture in Diyarbakir during the Ottoman period</strong></p> <p><strong>Extended Abstract</strong></p> <p>The existence of Turkish Music foundations can be traced to the Seljuk period in Anatolia. Many researchers state that it reached to peak level under the Ottoman rule. Especially, during the 16th and 17th centuries, the composition and performance of Turkish music immensely progressed. Hundreds of composers who contributed to this field’s development were born and raised in Anatolia.</p> <p>Istanbul (capital of the State) and Diyarbakir that can be considered as miniature Istanbul, were very important due to their contribution in the field of music in this period. Apart from Istanbul, Diyarbakir was one of the centres that cultivated a conspicuous amount of musicians. <br>The city of Diyarbakir is an important centre of knowledge, wisdom, and music. Besides the holding a central position the Seljuk period, Diyarbakir also functioned as an administrative centre during the Ottoman period due to its distance from the capital and its speciality of being the cultural centre of Mesopotamia. More specifically, it was the standard bearer not only in economics and politics for surrounding cities but also in culture and the arts.</p> <p>Some researches show that there were music and poet circles as Sufi organisations in Diyarbakır on the 16 and 17th centuries. Gülşenî tariqat; that was established by Diyarbakirî İbrahim Gülşenî, also used music in its rituals and with this aspect, it made a significant contribution to Diyarbakir’s musical culture. Yusuf Nâbî who had travelled occasionally to Diyarbakir while he was living in Urfa during his youth and then later in Aleppo, would attend music and poetry circles and gained a great deal of experience from them. This situation shows how important Diyarbakir’s music accumulation was.</p> <p>This study endeavours to introduce the musical culture of the region’s ancient city of Diyarbakir and the musicians who helped to develop this musical culture. The fact that Yahya Kemal Beyatlı mentioned Seyyid Nuh, a famous composer originally from Diyarbakir, in his poem entitled Eski Mûsikîmiz where he describes Turkish music, illustrates just how important this study is.</p> <p>This study begins by presenting information about the musical culture of Diyarbakir. It then subsequently highlights the biographies of 16th and 17th-century musicians originating from Diyarbakir. The primary sources benefited from in the literature review are, in chronological order: (i) Evliya Çelebi’s Seyahatnâme, (ii) Hâfız Post’s Güfte Mecmuası, (iii) Mehmed Es’ad Efendi’s Atrâbu’l-Âsâr, and (iv) Ali Emirî Efendi’s Tezkire-I Şuara-yı Âmid. In regard to information about musicians themselves, Atrâbü’l-Âsâr was taken as the primary source of reference from which partially simplified passages were used in tandem with other supporting sources to pen this information.</p> <p>During the last quarter of the 17th and first half of the 18th century, in particular, a large number of songsters, saz players, and composers were raised. The most important quality of these musicians as they were only not famous for performing local types of music but also they were famous Turkish (Ottoman) Classical Music. The names of some of these reputed Musicians who were lived during the reigns of the two Ottoman Sultans Mehmed V (1648-1688) and Ahmed III (1703-1730) as follows: <br>(i) Ahmed Verdî Çelebi, (ii) Ali (Karaoğlu, Âhû), (iii) Çemen-zâde Mehmed Çelebi, (iv) Çuvaldız-zâde İsmail Çelebi, (v) Emir Çelebi, (vi) Mahmud Çelebi, (vii) Seyyid Nuh Çelebi, (viii) Şehlâ Mustafa Çelebi, (ix) Şeyh-zâde Ahmed Efendi, and (x) Yahya Çelebi.</p> <p>All of the aforementioned musicians were born in Diyarbakir. Some of them continued to live there until their death whereas others relocated to Istanbul. these musicians who belonged different occupational groups became renowned in the fields of theory, composition, and singing in Diyarbakir during the Ottoman period.</p> <p>This knowledge is important when considering its reflection on the musical knowledge base and the success observed in musical education. Although a foreign (TR: acemâne) influence is observed in a portion of the musicians from Diyarbakir, an underlying Turkish Classical Music style is apparent. Despite, being distant from the centre of Turkish Classical Music, this mutual mix of musical styles in both places is important due to it expresses harmony with the capital.</p> 2018-12-30T04:09:47+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://rastmd.net/index.php/Rast/article/view/189 Hafif usulünün çeşitlerinin incelenmesi 2019-01-01T21:44:08+03:00 Resul Bağı resulbagi@gmail.com <p>Geçmişten günümüze meşk sistemine bağlı olarak geleneğin aktarılması yoluyla süregelen Türk<br>Musikisinde müziğin icrası, eğitimi ve buna bağlı olarak gelecek kuşaklara aktarılması önemli bir<br>yere sahiptir. Türk Musikisinde temel unsurlardan bir tanesi de Usûl konusudur. Türk Musikisi Meşk<br>sisteminin temellerinden biri de usuldür. Buna bağlı olarak Türk musikisinde ritmik kural koyucu<br>olduğu için ifade gücünü arttırır. Teknik olarak notadan veya yazılı bir kaynaktan öğrenilmesi güç<br>olan eserlerin hafızada yer etmesinin en önemli faktörlerinden biri güfte ise diğeri usuldür. Meşk<br>sisteminde eserin usulü ile birlikte öğrenilmesi esastır. Bu çalışmada, Türk Musikisi açısından önemli<br>bir yere sahip olan usullerden “Hafif Formunda- Hafif- Remel- Remel-i Kebir- Remel-i Sengin- Çâr<br>Darb- Çâr Darb-ı Hafif- Sedarb- Rah-ı Kerd (Rah-ı Kürd)- Muhammes- Darbeyn” on usulün tarihsel<br>müzikoloji bağlamında inceleyerek günümüzdeki kullanımlarına kadar yüzyıllar içerisindeki<br>gelişimlerini veya değişimlerini belirtmeye çalıştık.</p> <p><strong>Analysing of variations of the </strong>hafif<strong> usul</strong><br><strong>Extended abstract</strong></p> <p>Through the transfer of tradition from One of the important aspects of Turkish Music is a rhythmic cycle (usul). Normally, the rhythmic circle is one of the main elements of the meşk system (special music education system of maqam music) Consequently, rhythm in Turkish music increases the power of expression, so it can be seen as kind of rule maker for Turkish music.</p> <p>The subject of the rhythmic cycle (Usûl) has special importance in every period of Turkish Music. The theory of rhythm (Usûl/ika) began with El-Kındi (800-873) and continued by the works of philosopher musicians such as Fârabi (870-950), Ibn Sînâ (980-1037) and İhvan-ı Safa respectively. Maragalı Abdulkadir (1360-1435) increased the total number of usuls to 24 with 7 rhythms which he formed. However, Maragalı used the word “Devir” instead of the word rhythm (ika). According to Maragalı, the word ”ika” describes the relationship between the repetition of rhythms and the integrity of the piece. It can be said that his using similar with the function and theory of the word “rhythm/ Usûl”, which is conveyed conceptually by the music scholars after him (Hatipoğlu and Sağlam, 2013: 116).</p> <p>Rhythms come up with different classifications in the historical process. One of the most important classifications is the division as “Sakil and Hafif/heavy and light”.In this study, the ten rhythms studied in the form of “Hafif/light” will be examined along with the historical processes and their development throughout the centuries. In the last part of the study, we explain to the current uses of these rhythms and give some results obtained about these rhythmic cycles which have survived until today.<br>Rhythmic cycle means rhythmic templates, created for some special purposes. There are over seventy different rhythmic cycles in Turkish music from 2 to 120 times. Like the concept of fixed-moulded method, the single-stroke “aksak/limping” (not divisible or hampered by walking) measures such as 5-7-9-11-13-15 have remained unknown for centuries by Westerners (Tanrıkorur, 1998: 45). In Turkish music, rhythmic circles are called by their own names. Usuls had developed in historical periods by using Aruz prosody and became the most important element in Turkish music after the maqams. The term “usül” refers to the whole concept of measure and rhythm. Right, and left hands called “darp/beat” are performed by hitting the right and left legs. These strokes are expressed as syllables like “Düm- tek-teke- tekâ- tâhek”. There are internal rhythm elements called “pattern” and “rhythm”. Due to the relationship of “Usûl-Vezin” was applied in the three basic principles of which aruz prosody also is based. These principles were; “Sebep-Veted-Fasıla”.</p> <p>Two of the most important factors which are technically difficult to learn from notes or written sources is the lyrics and the rhythm. It is essential to learn pieces with the rhythmic patterns in Meşk system. In this study, we try to explain the transformation of some rhythmic cycle which have such an important place in terms of Turkish Music are in /HafifLight Form; Hafif/Light, Remel, Remel-i Kebir, Remel-i Sengin, Char Darb, Char Darb-i Hafif, Sedarb, Rah-i Kerd (Rah-i Kurd), Muhammes, Darbeyn, in centuries.</p> <p>The following results were obtained from our research about 10 rhythms in the hafif rhythmic cycle. The rhythms were basically six in the 13th century. These rhythms developed by using Aruz and seen as a useful instrument for learning songs. The rhythms that were not found can be thought as double or part of other rhythms. For example, Remel-i Kebir, is as fast as double from Remel. From the 17th century on, it was determined that the same rhythm was applied to different note values with the aim of changing the expression of vivid and inactivity without disrupting the pattern. For this reason, we can say that rhythmic patterns began to have better form in this period. It can be said that many rhythms have changed in form and structure. The rhythm Sakîlü’s Sâni, also known as Muhammes, was found to be a 6-beat rhythm by Safiyyüddin Urmevi. However, there is no similarity between the form we use today. It can be said that many rhythms that we know today are formed by dividing large rhythms into small rhythms in order to get easiness for playing.</p> 2018-12-30T04:05:32+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##