Rast Musicology Journal 2018-11-13T19:22:02+00:00 Fikri Soysal Open Journal Systems <p>RAST&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary, refereed journal devoted to issues and practices in the music research.&nbsp;</p> <p><a title="Dimensions" href=";search_type=kws&amp;search_field=full_search" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/rastmanager/dimension.png" width="294" height="67">&nbsp;</a><a title="Dimensions" href=";search_type=kws&amp;search_field=full_search" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>( Citation Database )</strong></a></p> <p><a title="RILM abstracts of music literature with full text " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/rastmanager/rilm.jpg" width="295" height="72">&nbsp; (<strong>EBSCO</strong>host</a>)</p> How was the traditional makam theory westernized for the sake of modernization? 2018-11-13T19:22:00+00:00 Okan Murat Öztürk <p>In this article, the transformative interventions of those who want to modernize the traditional makam theory in Westernization (or modernization) process experienced in Turkey are discussed in historical and critical context. The <em>makam</em> is among the most basic concepts of Turkish music as well as the Eastern music. In order to analyze the issue correctly in conceptual framework, here, two basic ‘music theory approaches' have been distinguished in terms of the musical elements they are based on: (i.) ‘scale-oriented’ and, (ii.) ‘melody-oriented’. The first typically represents the conception of Western harmonic tonality, while the second also represents the traditional Turkish <em>makam</em> conception before the Westernization period. This period is dealt with in three phases: (i.) the traditional <em>makam</em> concept before the ‘modernization’, (ii.) transformative interventions in the modernization phase, (iii.) recent new and critical approaches. As <em>makam</em> theory was used once in the history of Turkey, to convey a traditional heritage, it had a peculiar way of practice and education in its own cultural frame. It is determined that three different theoretical models based on mathematics, philosophy or composition had been used to explain the <em>makam</em>s. In 19<sup>th</sup> century, Turkish modernization was resulted in a stage in which a desire to ‘resemble to the West’ began to emerge. Starting from the last decade of that century, the <em>makam</em> conception was also exposed to some transformative interventions. First, it was compared with the concepts of Western musical theory such as scale and tonality. At this stage, the scale-oriented theory of harmonic tonality was seen as a complete and excellent model for the 'new / modern' theory desired to be built for the <em>makam</em>. Leading modernizers, Yekta, Ezgi, and Arel did not see any drawback in interpreting traditional <em>makam </em>frets/tones as the European tonal scale degrees with harmonic functions. Moreover, they also regarded those transformative interventions as necessary progress in order to modernize the <em>makam</em> theory. In particular, the model put out by Arel has been accepted and used for many years by researchers, educators and musicians either domestic or foreign as the only modern theory of Turkish music. However, the flawed and incomplete aspects of this theory, which has been constantly contradictory with actual musical performances, have caused ‘crisis’, and have been subjected to multidimensional criticisms, at least for the last fifty years. Demonstrating the arguments of new discussions on the subject, here, it has been revealed that the concept of <em>makam</em> should be understood as a melody-oriented approach, particularly considering the historical course of the concept in the Ottoman world. As a conclusion, it is suggested that the former reputation and validity of the melodic movement-oriented <em>makam</em> theory, which has been developed since the 15th century in the Ottoman world, should be returned.</p> <h2><strong>Keywords&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</h2> <p><em>makam, music theory, melody-oriented approach, Turkish modernization, shifting paradigms</em></p> 2018-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gezegenlerin Hareketinden Mûsikî Nağmelerine 2018-11-13T19:22:01+00:00 Yalçın Çetinkaya <h1><strong>Extended abstract</strong></h1> <h1><strong>From the motion of planets to the tunes of music</strong></h1> <p>Explaining music with reference to the universe is an ancient tradition. In the Islamic thought, music is understood through cosmic symbols and beings, however, these understandings are completely original and developed by Muslim thinkers. This is an ancient teaching in the science of music and it continues to thrive and develop within the perspective of Islamic thought. Islamic thought, culture and civilizations have favored this method of understanding and explaining due to its compatibility with its own conception of beings. It can be said that in the western tradition, this understanding and reading of music ended with St. Boethius. His approach to music is a Pythagorian approach, which clearly shows the influence of Pythagoras on his ideas. St. Boethius’ “Musica Mundana” (music of the heavens) approach is characteristically Pythagorian and it is also a reflection of the ancient musical tradition in the Christian world. St Boethius wrote his five volume work “De Instituione Musica” and there he examines the structures of music and also touches upon Pythragoras’ ideas on the harmony in the universe. In addition, the first four volumes of this series were prepared based on Nichomachos’ “Harmonikon Enkhiridion”, while the last volume was based on Ptolemaeus’ “Harmonica”.</p> <p>Music is categorized undet “phonetic arts” by contemporary researchers, and although it seems like an independent discipline, it in fact deserves being categorized as “an expression of the cosmos” due to its significance. Along with Pythagoras and the followers of his school, many thinkers in the Islamic thought tradition have expressed ideas and wrote books about this aspect of music. The very rich connections between the sounds, harmonic utilization of the sounds and the impacts that sounds have on the human soul have channeled the thinkers of music to define music as “an expression of the cosmos”. According to these thinkers, cosmos is a harmony (harmonia). And music reflects the “harmonia” between the sounds and therefore explains the cosmic harmony to a certain extent.</p> <p>According to Pythagoras, who can be considered as the pioneer of this school of thought, the universe has a divine quality and thus it has to be one perfect and compact totality. Pythagoras explains this as follows: “If the ‘good’ is a living being with integrity, this is because the universe is restricted in itself, and consists of various pieces that have a specific order within themselves”. Along with being a ‘good’ and a living being, the universe has a unique oneness in itself with unchangeable boundaries, and it illustrates this oneness with its ability to restructure itself. Everything in the universe has an order. All of the orbiting stars move within a perfect and eternal rotational movement. The universe, which embodies order, oneness and beauty in itself, can be defined with the word “cosmos”, though it is not completely possible to express the intended meaning in most of the Western languages. Pythagoras is the first thinker to define the universe like this. And it is useful to remember that the word “cosmos” also meant order and beauty in the ancient Greek language.</p> <p>Along with being the first thinker to set and conceptualise the rules of music, Pythagoras also attracts attention with his cosmic comprehension and commentary on the science of music. This commentary is most probably a result of the Hermetic epistemological tradition in which he was educated; however, the fact that he explains musical harmony parallel to the cosmic harmony is worth emphasizing. These ideas and commentaries of Pythagoras have driven attention and found a resonance within the Islamic tradition of knowledge. From the 10th century on, some Islamic sources have claimed that Pythagoras was studying the seen and unseen spheres of being, he was listening to the universe, and he was even able to hear the sounds of heavens when they are orbiting in their circles.</p> <p>In Pythagoras’ thought, numbers have certain representations within music. Though being a pioneering philosopher in other areas of thought as well, it can be claimed that his most striking ideas are in the science of music. Pythagoras believed that intervals between two sounds, which can be defined as the perfect sound consonance, can be explained within an arithmetic system that follows the multiples of numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4. These numbers add up to 10, and the number 10 is accepted as the perfect number in the unusual mixture of mathematics and mysticism. This number is illustrated in geometry with “tetraktys”, a geometrical shape that refers to number 10. The octave (the 8 note structure) is illustrated with 2:1 ratio, the interval that is five degrees high or deep is illustrated with 3:2 ratio, and the interval between the notes C and F is created with 4:3 ratio. Pyhtagoras has explained cosmos with harmonia, and harmonia was first of all implemented in the science of music.</p> <p>A group of&nbsp; ‘Pythagorian’ Muslim thinkers from the 10th century, the Ikhwan al-Safa, pointed out that the planets create certain sounds while they move; and with this thinking they get very close to the system of thought that was proposed by Pyhtagoras. These ideas of the Ikhwan can be seen as a more developed version of what Pythagoras defined as “the heavens creating a musical harmony while moving in their orbits”. Pythagoras, as it has been pointed out above, narrated that he heard the harmonical sounds of the heavens, and these beautiful musical notes were imprinted on his memory, which helped him to further his interest in the musical harmony of the universe.</p> <p>Ikhwan al-Safa refers to Pythagoras’ claim that he heard the sounds of the planets, and with reference to some other philosophers who have developed theories in the science of music, they put forward the following ideas: “Children imitate the behaviours of their parents. Students imitate those of their teachers. A public imitates their rulers. Those who have the faculty to think tend to aspire to the perfect state of angels. Like this, in the created sphere, there are orderly movements with harmonic tunes. These orderly and nearly-perfect movements also aspire to a higher level of harmonic tunes in the heavens. As it has been pointed out in the philosophical discussions, this is a reflection of man’s aspiration to the creator within the limits of his power.” Pythagoras, with his pure intellect of heart, heard the tunes of the movements of heavens; and with the magnanimity bestowed upon his faculties, revealed his unique musical methods and tunes.</p> <p>In the Islamic tradition, Ikhwan al-Safa is known for embracing the system of thought of Pythagoras. This group of thinkers have written an encyclopedic resource consisting of 52 separate letters (risalat), and in these letters they developed their systems of music based on Pythagoras’ conceptualisation of harmony and music. Just like Pythagoras, Ikhwan al-Safa refers to the existence of certain harmony (harmonia) within the universe. After talking about the harmony among all of the created beings in the universe and their degrees of harmony, Ikhwan al-Safa suggests that a similar kind of harmony is also present amongst the planets, and that these planets create very harmonic tunes in their movements. Besides in this system of thought, these tunes are compared and at the same time likened to the tunes created by the instrument oud.</p> <p>I brought examples from Pythagoras and later Pythagorean thinkers to the explanation of music as a mirror of the cosmos ever since Hermes in ancient civilizations in the first section of my paper explaining the expression of music with cosmic symbols. The first section also includes the reflections of this cosmic approach to music in the tasawwuf literature and Turkish classical music. In the second section, I treat the relationship between the harmony in the cosmos and the harmony in music using the case of Pythagoras’ understanding of the cosmos. This section analyzes the relationship between the movement of celestial spheres and music as expounded by Pythagoras -the theory of the Harmony of Spheres-and the impact of this understanding on the Islamic civilization, where it was introduced by Ikhwān Al-Ṣafā. In the third section, I tried to trace the connection of Ottoman and Islamic musical thought to the musical thinking of the civilizations of antiquity by focusing on the origin and the impact of Ikhwān Al-Ṣafā. This paper outlines the cosmic understanding of music from antiquity to the Islamic period by focusing on how various ancient and Muslim thinkers understood the relationship between music and the universe.</p> <h2><strong>Keywords</strong></h2> <p><em>cosmos, harmonia, pythagoras, ikhwan al-safa, planets</em></p> 2018-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Öğretmen adayı konservatuvar öğrencilerinin değer algıları: İyimser ve kötümser karikatürleri örneği 2018-11-13T19:22:02+00:00 Emel Funda Türkmen <p><strong>Extended</strong> <strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Teacher candidate conservatory student’s value perception: The example of optimistic and pessimistic caricatures</strong></p> <p>Pedagogical formation training, which they receive when they arrive in the last classroom is becoming a tight and hasty process, and they find themselves as having completed the formation before they realize what the teacher personality traits are. "Personality is a form of relationship which individual builds up both inside and outside is distinctive from other individuals, coherent and structured. Some personality traits are socially appreciated, approved and encouraged; some personality traits cause the exclusion of individuals who have these personality traits in society. Based on this requirement, values education is included in the curriculum of the Ministry of National Education. In the Values Education Directive, the purpose, scope, basis, and how to provide this training is discussed. The values stated in this direction which started in 2010 and expected to be taught to the students are as follows: "Love, Responsibility, Respect, Tolerance-Sensitivity, Self-confidence, Empathy, Fairness, Courage, Leadership, Being Gentle, Friendliness, solidarity, cleanliness, trustworthiness, honesty, respect for family, independent and free thinking, optimism, development of aesthetic feelings, hospitality, patriotism, doing goodness, diligence, sharing, compassion-charity, greeting, humility, cultural heritage, sacrifice.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Cüceloğlu expresses emotional depression as a sad face expression, stagnation, feelings of inadequacy, immediate fatigue, bending and kinking, desire for suicide, no interest in anything, comfortable sleeping, slowing of speech, indecision, hopelessness, loss of appetite. &nbsp;Cemal Nadir Güler was a caricature artist who had lived between (1902-1947). The comics he painted were a part of his daily life of his era. His work has great value and importance for Turkish Culture. In this study, it was aimed to examine the values in the caricatures of "optimistic and pessimistic" of the candidate teacher conservatory students and to evaluate the values they found in the caricature by making inferences professionally.</p> <p>Qualitative research methods were used in the research, and case studies were conducted to find answers to why and how. Through the Optimistic and Pessimistic characters of Cemal Nadir Guler, it has been tried to investigate how the students who are candidate teachers are perceiving the values related to the teaching profession. Three caricatures were shown to students and the answer was searched within the scope of this research for the questions "What are the Personality Characteristics of the Optimistic and Pessimistic Characters of the Students Who See in Comics?", "What are the Implications of Students from the Attitudes and Behaviours of the Caricatures of the People" and "What Are the Following Values in Their Optimistic and Pessimistic Comics? The answers to the questions are intended to identify situations in which they perceive values related to the teaching profession.</p> <p>In this research, study group was formed with the participation of volunteer candidates from conservatory students who are studying at the last grade in the 2017-2018 academic year of Afyon Kocatepe University State Conservatory and taking pedagogical formation.</p> <p>Three visuals, which are thought to carry expressions about values from the Optimistic and Pessimistic comics series in the Humor magazine Akbaba, were chosen. The aim of the study group was given information about the importance of the study. Following the presentation of the caricatures, a written interview was held via a structured interview. It has been resolved according to qualitative research techniques. The data obtained in the study are summarized and interpreted in accordance with the descriptive analysis technique, in keeping with the original theme, in accordance with the predetermined theme. When the data from the students are processed, the repeating themes are written once.</p> <p>What are the Personality Features of Optimistic and Pessimistic Characters you see in Comics? It was determined that the optimistic and pessimistic characters in the cartoon corresponded to the values covered in the values of education. It has been seen that students read in this way; the optimistic personality traits show the personality traits that the society values, the pessimistic personality traits reveal the personality traits that the society does not appreciate.</p> <p>What are your inferences from the attitudes and behaviours of people in comics? In their answers, it has been observed that almost all of the teacher candidates of pedagogical formation students gave detail and qualified answer about two characters of caricatures and examined of their approaches that are expected to shape their future behaviour. From these inferences, it is observed that they have attained a teacher and attained behaviors that should and should not exist.</p> <p>Whichoptimistic and pessimistic caricatures do you see? The answers they have given was identified as the most prominent values is that of values of hard work and tolerance. It seems that values of love and respect followed them.</p> <p>It has been understood that comics can be a good material in values education, attitude, behaviour of development. Emotional intensities and emotional attitudes and behaviours are seen as a symptom of some problems in their professional life. Considering that conservatory education is an area specialist training, it is normal that students should be extremely sensitive in some issues. On the other hand, when observing general music education given at primary, secondary and high school level of music education, it is extremely inconvenient for students from these institutions to be successful in every subject, because there is a training given to each individual without any discrimination of talented and non-talented. For this reason, it is necessary to understand that the teaching personality in the institutions that are given general music education is different from the teacher personality that the teacher candidates know during conservatory education.</p> <p>As a result of the research, it has been understood that the values education can be understood clearly by expressing the materials like caricature and these values can be created in the professional fields in parallel with the professional competences. Especially in the areas of professional training, it is thought that comics can develop a critical view of professional behaviour and allow professional owners to evaluate themselves.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong></p> <p><em>values perception, caricatures, optimistic, pessimistic, teacher candidate</em></p> 2018-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Konservatuvarlarda görev yapan akademisyenlerin tükenmişlik düzeyleri 2018-11-13T19:22:02+00:00 Serpil Umuzdaş Funda Keklik Kal <p><strong>Extended abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Burnout levels of academicians working in conservatories</strong></p> <p>Occupationally, emotional labor is mostly done in the field of art. In the institutions that make or teach art, the feelings of those who work will affect their products. In recent years, "burnout" has attracted researchers as a phenomenon related to emotions that attract attention in all service areas. According to Maslach, who developed Maslach Burnout Inventory which is the most frequently used inventory in the field, "burnout is a syndrome characterized by physical exhaustion, long-term fatigue, desperation and despair feelings in people who are exposed to intense emotional demands for work and who constantly have to face with other people". The burnout situation which academic staff experiences can influence educational and academic products. Although there are a lot of researches on burnout on different occupational groups in Turkey, as far as investigated, there is no study made regarding the burnout in the sample of academic staff working in the conservatory. Therefore, the findings of this research are important in terms of being able to take part in the literature and to guide the next studies.</p> <p>This study, in which exhaustion levels of academicians working at conservatories are determined and analyzed according to various variants, is a descriptive study. The aim was to examine the burnout levels of the academicians working in the selected conservatories with the appropriate sampling method. In this study, conservatories of Ankara Gazi University, Afyon Kocatepe University, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Izmir Ege University were selected with the appropriate sampling method from all conservatories in Turkey. A total of 138 academicians working at these institutions were included in the study. After eliminating the scales with empty or incomplete answers, 56 scales to be evaluated were obtained.</p> <p>As a result, in this study which the levels of occupational burnout of academicians were examined, it was observed that the burnout levels of academicians differ according to administrative duty, title and the city where the institution is located. It is known that 12 of the academicians have administrative duties and 44 academicians do not have administrative duties. According to this; as a result of the Mann Whitney-U test, which was conducted to determine whether the academicians differed in terms of whether they had an administrative duty, it was determined that there was a statistically significant difference among the groups in all sub-dimensions respectively on p&lt;0.05 level. It can be said that academicians who are administrators experienced more burnout than those who are not. It is known that 7 apprentices, 30 lecturers, 3 research assistants, 9 assistant professors, 6 associate professors and 1 professor participated in the research. The Kruskal Wallis-H result, which was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in exhaustion levels according to the titles of academicians, was found to be statistically significant in terms of the order of groups in the dimension of desensitization. Complementary comparisons were then made to determine which groups resulted in a significant difference after Kruskal Wallis-H.&nbsp; It is concluded that; the desensitization is most experienced by academicians bearing the title of Associate Professor. It is known that 11 academic staff from Ankara Gazi University, 8 academic staff from Afyon Kocatepe University, 25 academic staff from Izmir Ege University and 12 academic staff from Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University participated in the research. As a result of Kruskal Wallis-H, which was established in order to determine whether the academicians had a significant difference according to the city where they were working at the burnout level, the difference among ranking averages of groups from all sub-dimensions was found to be significantly meaningful. When we look at the sources of the difference, in all the sub-dimensions, it is concluded that academicians residing in Tokat province experienced burnout the most. Afyon, Ankara, and Izmir are next on the list respectively. This work is the first of its kind because of its sampling method to specially select Conservatories and evaluate them as being an arts education institution. As a study recommendation; it can be suggested that conservatories in other regions can be studied with different variables. As an application proposal; it should be noted that this and similar work outcomes must be put into practice in educational and administrative arrangements.</p> <h2><strong>Keywords</strong></h2> <p><em>academicians, burnout, conservatory</em></p> 2018-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##