Hafif usulünün çeşitlerinin incelenmesi
Geçmişten günümüze meşk sistemine bağlı olarak geleneğin aktarılması yoluyla süregelen Türk
Musikisinde müziğin icrası, eğitimi ve buna bağlı olarak gelecek kuşaklara aktarılması önemli bir
yere sahiptir. Türk Musikisinde temel unsurlardan bir tanesi de Usûl konusudur. Türk Musikisi Meşk
sisteminin temellerinden biri de usuldür. Buna bağlı olarak Türk musikisinde ritmik kural koyucu
olduğu için ifade gücünü arttırır. Teknik olarak notadan veya yazılı bir kaynaktan öğrenilmesi güç
olan eserlerin hafızada yer etmesinin en önemli faktörlerinden biri güfte ise diğeri usuldür. Meşk
sisteminde eserin usulü ile birlikte öğrenilmesi esastır. Bu çalışmada, Türk Musikisi açısından önemli
bir yere sahip olan usullerden “Hafif Formunda- Hafif- Remel- Remel-i Kebir- Remel-i Sengin- Çâr
Darb- Çâr Darb-ı Hafif- Sedarb- Rah-ı Kerd (Rah-ı Kürd)- Muhammes- Darbeyn” on usulün tarihsel
müzikoloji bağlamında inceleyerek günümüzdeki kullanımlarına kadar yüzyıllar içerisindeki
gelişimlerini veya değişimlerini belirtmeye çalıştık.
Analysing of variations of the hafif usul
Through the transfer of tradition from One of the important aspects of Turkish Music is a rhythmic cycle (usul). Normally, the rhythmic circle is one of the main elements of the meşk system (special music education system of maqam music) Consequently, rhythm in Turkish music increases the power of expression, so it can be seen as kind of rule maker for Turkish music.
The subject of the rhythmic cycle (Usûl) has special importance in every period of Turkish Music. The theory of rhythm (Usûl/ika) began with El-Kındi (800-873) and continued by the works of philosopher musicians such as Fârabi (870-950), Ibn Sînâ (980-1037) and İhvan-ı Safa respectively. Maragalı Abdulkadir (1360-1435) increased the total number of usuls to 24 with 7 rhythms which he formed. However, Maragalı used the word “Devir” instead of the word rhythm (ika). According to Maragalı, the word ”ika” describes the relationship between the repetition of rhythms and the integrity of the piece. It can be said that his using similar with the function and theory of the word “rhythm/ Usûl”, which is conveyed conceptually by the music scholars after him (Hatipoğlu and Sağlam, 2013: 116).
Rhythms come up with different classifications in the historical process. One of the most important classifications is the division as “Sakil and Hafif/heavy and light”.In this study, the ten rhythms studied in the form of “Hafif/light” will be examined along with the historical processes and their development throughout the centuries. In the last part of the study, we explain to the current uses of these rhythms and give some results obtained about these rhythmic cycles which have survived until today.
Rhythmic cycle means rhythmic templates, created for some special purposes. There are over seventy different rhythmic cycles in Turkish music from 2 to 120 times. Like the concept of fixed-moulded method, the single-stroke “aksak/limping” (not divisible or hampered by walking) measures such as 5-7-9-11-13-15 have remained unknown for centuries by Westerners (Tanrıkorur, 1998: 45). In Turkish music, rhythmic circles are called by their own names. Usuls had developed in historical periods by using Aruz prosody and became the most important element in Turkish music after the maqams. The term “usül” refers to the whole concept of measure and rhythm. Right, and left hands called “darp/beat” are performed by hitting the right and left legs. These strokes are expressed as syllables like “Düm- tek-teke- tekâ- tâhek”. There are internal rhythm elements called “pattern” and “rhythm”. Due to the relationship of “Usûl-Vezin” was applied in the three basic principles of which aruz prosody also is based. These principles were; “Sebep-Veted-Fasıla”.
Two of the most important factors which are technically difficult to learn from notes or written sources is the lyrics and the rhythm. It is essential to learn pieces with the rhythmic patterns in Meşk system. In this study, we try to explain the transformation of some rhythmic cycle which have such an important place in terms of Turkish Music are in /HafifLight Form; Hafif/Light, Remel, Remel-i Kebir, Remel-i Sengin, Char Darb, Char Darb-i Hafif, Sedarb, Rah-i Kerd (Rah-i Kurd), Muhammes, Darbeyn, in centuries.
The following results were obtained from our research about 10 rhythms in the hafif rhythmic cycle. The rhythms were basically six in the 13th century. These rhythms developed by using Aruz and seen as a useful instrument for learning songs. The rhythms that were not found can be thought as double or part of other rhythms. For example, Remel-i Kebir, is as fast as double from Remel. From the 17th century on, it was determined that the same rhythm was applied to different note values with the aim of changing the expression of vivid and inactivity without disrupting the pattern. For this reason, we can say that rhythmic patterns began to have better form in this period. It can be said that many rhythms have changed in form and structure. The rhythm Sakîlü’s Sâni, also known as Muhammes, was found to be a 6-beat rhythm by Safiyyüddin Urmevi. However, there is no similarity between the form we use today. It can be said that many rhythms that we know today are formed by dividing large rhythms into small rhythms in order to get easiness for playing.