Abstract

Selçuklular zamanında Anadolu’da temelleri atılan Türk makam mûsikîsi, Osmanlılar döneminde ilerleme kaydetmiştir. Özellikle XVI. ve XVII. yüzyılda Anadolu’da Türk makam mûsikîsi, hem bestekârlık hem de icrâ alanında büyük bir gelişme göstermiştir. Bu coğrafyada yüzlerce mûsikîşinâs yetişmiştir. Osmanlı başkenti İstanbul başta olmak üzere, “Küçük İstanbul” olarak isimlendirilen Diyarbakır da bu dönemde mûsikî alanında mümbit bir yer olmuştur. Bu dönemde İstanbul dışında kayda değer sayıda mûsikîşinasın yetiştiği merkezlerden biri Diyarbakır’dır. Şeyhülislâm Mehmed Es’ad Efendi’nin (ö. 1753) XVI. ve XVII. yüzyılda yaşamış yüz kadar bestekârın biyografisini ihtiva eden Türk Mûsikî tarihinde yegâne “Mûsikîşinâslar Tezkiresi” olarak kabul edilen Atrâbü’l-Âsâr adlı kitabında Diyarbakırlı sekiz mûsikîşinâsın hayatı hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Osmanlı padişahlarından Sultan IV. Mehmed (1648-1688) ve Sultan III. Ahmed (1703-1730) dönemlerinde Diyarbakır’da meşhur olan sekiz mûsikîşinas şunlardır: Ahmed Verdî Çelebi, Çemen-zâde Mehmed Çelebi, Çuvaldız-zâde İsmail Çelebi, Mahmud Çelebi, Seyyid Nuh Çelebi, Şehlâ Mustafa Çelebi, Şeyh-zâde Ahmed Efendi ve Yahya Çelebi’dir. Farklı meslek gruplarına mensup mezkûr mûsikîşinaslar, Osmanlı döneminde Diyarbakır’da Türk mûsikîsinin nazariyat, bestekârlık ve hânendelik alanlarında şöhret sahibi olmuşlardır.


Musicians and musical culture in Diyarbakir during the Ottoman period


Extended Abstract


The existence of Turkish Music foundations can be traced to the Seljuk period in Anatolia. Many researchers state that it reached to peak level under the Ottoman rule. Especially, during the 16th and 17th centuries, the composition and performance of Turkish music immensely progressed. Hundreds of composers who contributed to this field’s development were born and raised in Anatolia.


Istanbul (capital of the State) and Diyarbakir that can be considered as miniature Istanbul, were very important due to their contribution in the field of music in this period. Apart from Istanbul, Diyarbakir was one of the centres that cultivated a conspicuous amount of musicians.
The city of Diyarbakir is an important centre of knowledge, wisdom, and music. Besides the holding a central position the Seljuk period, Diyarbakir also functioned as an administrative centre during the Ottoman period due to its distance from the capital and its speciality of being the cultural centre of Mesopotamia. More specifically, it was the standard bearer not only in economics and politics for surrounding cities but also in culture and the arts.


Some researches show that there were music and poet circles as Sufi organisations in Diyarbakır on the 16 and 17th centuries. Gülşenî tariqat; that was established by Diyarbakirî İbrahim Gülşenî, also used music in its rituals and with this aspect, it made a significant contribution to Diyarbakir’s musical culture. Yusuf Nâbî who had travelled occasionally to Diyarbakir while he was living in Urfa during his youth and then later in Aleppo, would attend music and poetry circles and gained a great deal of experience from them. This situation shows how important Diyarbakir’s music accumulation was.


This study endeavours to introduce the musical culture of the region’s ancient city of Diyarbakir and the musicians who helped to develop this musical culture. The fact that Yahya Kemal Beyatlı mentioned Seyyid Nuh, a famous composer originally from Diyarbakir, in his poem entitled Eski Mûsikîmiz where he describes Turkish music, illustrates just how important this study is.


This study begins by presenting information about the musical culture of Diyarbakir. It then subsequently highlights the biographies of 16th and 17th-century musicians originating from Diyarbakir. The primary sources benefited from in the literature review are, in chronological order: (i) Evliya Çelebi’s Seyahatnâme, (ii) Hâfız Post’s Güfte Mecmuası, (iii) Mehmed Es’ad Efendi’s Atrâbu’l-Âsâr, and (iv) Ali Emirî Efendi’s Tezkire-I Şuara-yı Âmid. In regard to information about musicians themselves, Atrâbü’l-Âsâr was taken as the primary source of reference from which partially simplified passages were used in tandem with other supporting sources to pen this information.


During the last quarter of the 17th and first half of the 18th century, in particular, a large number of songsters, saz players, and composers were raised. The most important quality of these musicians as they were only not famous for performing local types of music but also they were famous Turkish (Ottoman) Classical Music. The names of some of these reputed Musicians who were lived during the reigns of the two Ottoman Sultans Mehmed V (1648-1688) and Ahmed III (1703-1730) as follows:
(i) Ahmed Verdî Çelebi, (ii) Ali (Karaoğlu, Âhû), (iii) Çemen-zâde Mehmed Çelebi, (iv) Çuvaldız-zâde İsmail Çelebi, (v) Emir Çelebi, (vi) Mahmud Çelebi, (vii) Seyyid Nuh Çelebi, (viii) Şehlâ Mustafa Çelebi, (ix) Şeyh-zâde Ahmed Efendi, and (x) Yahya Çelebi.


All of the aforementioned musicians were born in Diyarbakir. Some of them continued to live there until their death whereas others relocated to Istanbul. these musicians who belonged different occupational groups became renowned in the fields of theory, composition, and singing in Diyarbakir during the Ottoman period.


This knowledge is important when considering its reflection on the musical knowledge base and the success observed in musical education. Although a foreign (TR: acemâne) influence is observed in a portion of the musicians from Diyarbakir, an underlying Turkish Classical Music style is apparent. Despite, being distant from the centre of Turkish Classical Music, this mutual mix of musical styles in both places is important due to it expresses harmony with the capital.