Şükrullah Çelebi’nin Edvar-ı Musiki eserinin 30. ve 31. fasılları: Ses sağlığı
Bu çalışma 15. Yüzyıl müzik teorisyenlerinden Ahmedoğlu Şükrullah Çelebi’nin Edvar-ı Musiki
(EM) eserinin otuz ve otuz birinci fasıllarında ses sağlığına yönelik önerilerini günümüz modern
tıp çerçevesinde açıklamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Müellif tıp, musiki ve dini ilimlerde uzmanlığı
bulunan, Türkçe, Arapça ve Fars dillerini iyi seviyede bilen bir âlimdir. Otuz ve otuzbirinci fasıllarını
çalıştığımız kitabın ilk 15 faslı Kitabül Edvar’ın Türk diline tercümesi, bir kısmı Kenzü’t- Tuhaf’dan
alıntı bir kısmı ise müstakildir. Ses sağlığı, ses sisteminde yer alan tüm organ ve yapıların fizyolojik
olarak uyumlu bir şekilde çalışması anlamına gelmektedir. Bu fizyolojik uyumda herhangi bir
bozukluk ses sağlığını olumsuz etkilemekte ve ses kusurlarına neden olmaktadır. Müellif otuzuncu
fasılda sese iyi gelen yiyecekler bildirmiştir. Bunların başlıcaları şunlardır: Ispanak, ebegümeci,
pişmemiş yumurta sarısı, incir, bakla, bal şerbeti, hardal, badem yağı gibi maddelerin sesi
açtığından bahsedilmiştir. Otuz Birinci fasılda ise kar suyu içmek, ekşi yiyecekler yemek, esrar
içmek, istifra etmek ve yatarken bir şeyler okumak ses kısıklığına ya da bozukluğuna neden olduğu
belirtilmektedir. Çalışmamızda Şükrullah Çelebi’nin 15.yy. da yazılmış eserinde bulunan önerilerinin
günümüz alternatif tıp uygulamaları ile birçok bakımdan uyumlu olduğu görülmüştür.
Chapters 30 and 31 of Şükrullah Çelebi’s Work Edvar-ı Musiki: Voice Health
This study was carried out to explain the recommendations of Ahmedoğlu Şükrullah Çelebi, one of the ulemas in Amasya, on voice health in the thirtieth and thirty-first chapters of his work EM within the scope of today’s modern medicine. The author was born in 1388 although it is not certain, and he was a scholar who had expertise in medicine, music and religious sciences and knew Turkish, Arabic and Persian languages at a good level. EM was translated into Turkish by Amasyalı Şükrullah. The first 15 chapters are the translation of Kitabül Edvar and some of the chapters were put together from Kenzü’t- Tuhaf. The others are the author’s own research. We focus on the thirtieth and thirty-first chapters. Voice health refers to the physiologically compatible operation of all organs and structures in the voice system. In this physiological compliance, any disorder negatively affects the voice health and leads to voice defects. The author reported the foods that are good for voice in the thirtieth chapter. The main ones are as follows. It was mentioned that the foods like spinach, marshmallow, uncooked egg yolk, fig, bean, hydromel, mustard, and almond oil refresh the voice. In the thirty-first chapter, the situations disturbing the voice are reported. In other words, it is stated that drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying cause hoarseness or voice disorder. In our study, the recommendations in Şükrullah Çelebi’s work written in the 15th century were found to be compatible with today’s alternative medicine practices in many respects.
Human being becomes a socio-cultural entity after coming into the world. By this characteristic, people are the beings communicating and interacting with the environment. Voice is one of the most important tools they use while doing this. In fact, voice and the use of voice appear in many situations from people’s communication to the fulfilment of their works. While some occupational groups such as teachers, lawyers, health professionals, and sales representatives use their voices by speaking intensely, on the other hand, some occupational groups use their voices to sing. In addition to occupations that require intensive speech, musicians who play music by using their voice further need a healthy voice compared to others.
This descriptive study was carried out by performing a literature review for the keywords in terms of voice health mentioned in the 30th and 31st chapters and by obtaining scientific data. In the first stage of the study, “spinach, marshmallow, uncooked egg yolk, fig, bean, hydromel, mustard, and almond oil,” which are among the foods that are good for voice, in chapter 30 constituted the first keywords in the literature review. The explanation of the mechanism of action of the first keywords in terms of voice health based on the literature data constituted the second stage of the study. In the third stage of the study, “drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying,” which are among the factors disturbing the voice mentioned in chapter 31, were discussed as the second keywords. The explanation of the physiopathology of these factors according to the literature constituted the final stage of the study.
It is thought that Şükrüllah Çelebi might have indicated that the fact the macro and micronutrients that the foods mentioned in chapter 30 of EM contain with respect to their effects on voice health have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and functional nutrient properties affects the proper functioning of metabolism, and therefore they are good for voice. In the results regarding the foods that are good for voice in line with the information given by the author, it is observed that he recommended marshmallow, fig, hydromel, mustard and almond oil in a direct connection with voice and also included the nutrients such as spinach, eggs, and bean that we can consider to have indirect effects. It can be said that the author evaluates the individual as a whole with respect to maintaining the state of being healthy as nowadays and that his recommendations are aimed at contributing to the good health of both larynx and vocal cords and the whole body. When the vitamins and nutrient contents of the foods that are good for voice were examined in general, it was found that the proteins, vitamin A and vitamin E were common. With respect to the benefits of these vitamins to the body, they contribute indirectly to the voice health in terms of preventing the common cold and strengthening the immune system.
The results related to the physiopathology of the factors that are bad for voice indicate that each of the possible actions negatively affects the voice health with a direct effect on the structures forming the voice. It can be said that the actions of “drinking snow water, eating sour foods, smoking weed, vomiting and reading something while lying” reported by Şükrullah Çelebi are compatible with the literature.
In conclusion, it appears that Şükrullah Çelebi’s recommendations for the foods that are good for voice are largely suitable in terms of the macro and micronutrients that the foods contain, their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and functional nutrient properties, their effect on the functioning of metabolism in a way to contribute to the maintenance of hemostasis, and that the factors that are bad for voice are largely compatible with the explanation of the negative effects of their physiopathology on voice health. In the future, it is recommended to carry out descriptive studies on the prevalence of voice health problems in society and alternative medical practices for voice health, and interdisciplinary studies that will explain the effects of nutrients that are good for voice.