Abstract

Türk mûsikîsi makam tarihi sürecinde verilen tarifler ve bestelenen eserler, kendi dönemlerinde kullanılan makamların seyir anlayışları açısından haberci durumunda olmuşlardır. İncelemelerde bazı makamların küçük değişikliklerle, bazılarının ise büyük farklılıklarla zamanımıza ulaştığı anlaşılmaktadır. Bu makalede ele alacağımız Muhayyer-Sünbüle makâmı da bu farklılaşmanın içinde yer almaktadır. Muhayyer-Sünbüle makâmına ait tarifler ve besteler tahlil edildiğinde ortaya farklı durumlar çıkmıştır. Repertuvarda bulunan Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Sünbüle makamlarıyla yazılmış bazı eserlerin, bununla beraber Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Muhayyer-Kürdî makamları ile yazılmış yine bazı eserlerin, aynı seyre sahip oldukları anlaşılmıştır. Bu karmaşıklığın sebebini araştırmak amacıyla hazırladığımız bu makalede; Sünbüle, Muhayyer-Sünbüle ve Muhayyer-Kürdî makamlarına ait tarifler ve eserler incelenmiş, XVIII. asırdan bu yana oluşan değişiklikler, tarif ve eser örnekleriyle gözler önüne serilmiştir. Adı geçen makamların araştırılması sırasında Muhayyer makâmının başka bir kullanımı da ortaya çıkmış ve bu kullanımın bazı Muhayyer-Kürdî eserlerdeki önemi vurgulanmıştır. Sonuç olarak; Nâsır Dede zamanında ilk tarifi verilen Muhayyer-Sünbüle terkîbinin bir dönem Sünbüle makâmının yerine geçtiği, daha sonraki dönemde ise ikinci nevî olarak belirttiğimiz Muhayyer-Kürdî makâmının seyrini aldığı anlaşılmıştır.


Muhayyer-sünbüle maqam
Extended Abstract
Maqam descriptions and pieces are very important sources, for understanding seyir specialities (special melodic movements that are used for explaining maqams) in their own era. Academic researches show that some Maqams have reached the present day through small changes, while some of them profoundly transformed. This article focuses on the Muhayyer-Sünbüle Maqam, which is one of the transformed maqams. After analysing to maqam descriptions and compositions, different findings were obtained. for example, some of the pieces, composed in the Maqams Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Sünbüleshare the same seyir with some of the pieces composed in the Maqams Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Muhayyer Kürdî. This study aims to investigate to reasons that is behind this complexity by analysing the Maqam descriptions and compositions.
The concept of Maqam is defined under three different approaches. The first approach is based on the period between Safiyuddin-Kantemiroğlu. The second includes the period between Kantemiroğlu-Rauf Yekta Bey, while the third spans the period between Rauf Yekta Bey and today. The first traces of Muhayyer-Sünbüle description during the time of Nâsır Dede, that can be shown in the second period. The Maqam descriptions of this period were written in the fret-by-fret melodic development approach. Therefore, for the analysis of Maqam descriptions, this article refers to the music theory books and compositions of the second period as well as the music theory books and compositions of the third period, aiming to emphasize the changes we observe today.
In order to show how the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle has transformed through time, the Maqam descriptions between the 18th and 20th centuries were analysed, which includes the descriptions by Kantemiroğlu (18th c.), Tanbûrî Artin (18th c.), Hızır Ağa (18th c.), Abdülbâkî Nâsır Dede (18th c.), Hâşim Bey (19th c.), Kâzım Uz (20th c.), H.S. Arel (20th c.) ve E. Karadeniz (20th c.). Additionally, compositions recorded in the repertoire from these periods were also analysed.
Firstly, the Maqam Sünbüle was analysed for the purpose of analysing Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle. Maqam descriptions and some of the sample compositions of the Maqam were analysed, which spans the period between Kantemiroğlu and today. The first description of the Muhayyer-Sünbüle terkîb,( compound Maqam), that was written by Abdülbâkî Nâsır Dede and the pieces composed in this Maqam, as well as the Maqam descriptions were analysed. This study suggests that most of the pieces composed in the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle are very similar with some Zekâî Dede’s compositions, which he composed in the Maqam Muhayyer-Kûrdi.
The Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle has gone through two phases until today. Phase one is when Muhayyer-Sünbüle started to substitute the Maqam Sünbüle. The second stage had started with when Muhayyer-Sünbüle took a different course by adopting the Kurdish style while reaching the cadence.
It is ascertained that the Maqams Sünbüle and Muhayyer-Sünbüle are two different Maqams. Even though Nâsır Dede gives a clear description of Muhayyer-Sünbüle in his book, the descriptions and compositions from the eras following his time suggest a different approach and Maqam progression
It is also ascertained that there is a great similarity between the Maqam progressions employed in Muhayyer-Sünbüle and Muhayyer-Kürdî. The analysis of descriptions and compositions up until today shows that the Maqam Muhayyer-Kürdî (first seen on the description of Hızır Ağa), has two different types as with or without Sabâ.
The analysis of Muhayyer-Kürdî compositions suggests that Sabâ style was used strikingly. The analysis shows that the reason behind the use of the Sabâ style is there are two types of the Maqam Muhayyer.
Today, the compositions that are recorded as Muhayyer Sünbüle were not composed in accordance with the actual melodic progression of the Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle. The Maqam Muhayyer-Sünbüle in current approach is actually the second type of the Maqam Muhayyer-Kürdî.
Re-study of Muhayyer sünbüle maqam and reanalysing of the compositions, recorded as Muhayyer sunbüle in literature is extremely useful for maqam music area. After this study we suggest new statements one of them as follows; if one composition doesn't go through the cadence by Saba and go through by Saba Zemzeme and Kurdi, it can be better said that, composed in Second type Muhayyer Kurdi or Sünbüle-Zemzeme/Sünbüle-Kürdî, than Muhayyer Sünbüle.